- 本カテゴリの商品を2500円以上購入で買取金額500円UPキャンペーン対象商品です。商品出荷時に買取サービスでご利用いただけるクーポンをメールにてご案内させていただきます。 詳細はこちら (細則もこちらからご覧いただけます)
Who Is Rational?: Studies of individual Differences in Reasoning (英語) ハードカバー – 1999/5/13
Kindle 端末は必要ありません。無料 Kindle アプリのいずれかをダウンロードすると、スマートフォン、タブレットPCで Kindle 本をお読みいただけます。
Integrating a decade-long program of empirical research with current cognitive theory, this book demonstrates that psychological research has profound implications for current debates about what it means to be rational. The author brings new evidence to bear on these issues by demonstrating that patterns of individual differences--largely ignored in disputes about human rationality--have strong implications for explanations of the gap between normative and descriptive models of human behavior. Separate chapters show how patterns of individual differences have implications for all of the major critiques of purported demonstrations of human irrationality in the heuristics and biases literature. In these critiques, it has been posited that experimenters have observed performance errors rather than systematically irrational responses; the tasks have required computational operations that exceed human cognitive capacity; experimenters have applied the wrong normative model to the task; and participants have misinterpreted the tasks.
In a comprehensive set of studies, Stanovich demonstrates that gaps between normative and descriptive models of performance on some tasks can be accounted for by positing these alternative explanations, but that not all discrepancies from normative models can be so explained. Individual differences in rational thought can in part be predicted by psychological dispositions that are interpreted as characteristic biases in people's intentional-level psychologies. Presenting the most comprehensive examination of individual differences in the heuristics and biases literature that has yet been published, experiments and theoretical insights in this volume contextualize the heuristics and biases literature exemplified in the work of various investigators.
This sort of game would very likely predict the outcome of the interrogations if both people understand the game. You could say that a person who does not understand the game is acting rationally on bad information, but this would leave us with no-useful definition of the difference between rational and irrational behavior. The author makes a study of who can understand problems like these and who cannot. He found that one of the strongest predictors of understanding problems is broad liberal arts education. This implies that reasoning ability develops with mental growth. The book is interesting, well documented, and well presented.