Who Needs Classical Music?: Cultural Choice and Musical Value (英語) ペーパーバック – 2011/9/1
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During the last few decades, most cultural critics have come to agree that the division between "high" and "low" art is an artificial one, that Beethoven's Ninth and "Blue Suede Shoes" are equally valuable as cultural texts. In Who Needs Classical Music?, Julian Johnson challenges these assumptions about the relativism of cultural judgments. The author maintains that music is more than just "a matter of taste": while some music provides entertainment, or serves as background noise, other music claims to function as art. This book considers the value of classical music in contemporary society, arguing that it remains distinctive because it works in quite different ways to most of the other music that surrounds us.
This intellectually sophisticated yet accessible book offers a new and balanced defense of the specific values of classical music in contemporary culture. The paperback edition includes a new preface from the author, re-contextualizing the debate ten years out. Who Needs Classical Music? will stimulate readers to reflect on their own investment (or lack of it) in music and art of all kinds.
You will often cheer out loud! I did...more profound than can be communicated in a book review. I read this twice. Like all my favorite books, I will read it again and again. Nothing is more relevant to classical music devotees. (American Record Guide)商品の説明をすべて表示する
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Johnson constantly accuses pop music, and it's listeners, of a huge host of things that upon examination don't really hold up to scrutiny: If pop music is all about fads and fashions why do pop acts from the Beatles to David Bowie continue to capture the imagination of new generations? If listening to music for a sustained period of time is so foreign to pop music how come groups from the Dave Matthews Band to Tool continue to have devoted audiences who will sit for hours enraptured not by the show so much as the music, if pop music is supposed to lack discursive movement and complexity then what does one make of King Crimson or Radiohead? The list of exceptions to Johnson's trite dismissals is too long to be overlooked and it's what makes a book that could have been a positive affirmation of Classical Music a mostly useless and shallow rehashing of the old Classical vs. Pop Music debate.
He wrote in the Introduction to this 2002 book, "This book is about the value of classical music... it is about its apparent devaluation today and the consequences of its current legitimation crisis... It addresses questions not just about music but about the nature of contemporary culture... my main point is that while some classical music can and does function as popular culture, its ... makes a claim to a distinctive value because it lends itself to functions that, on the whole, popular music does not... classical music is distinguished by a self-conscious attention to its own musical language." (Pg. 3) He adds, "Central to my argument is the distinction between the process by which value is conferred on music and a broader sense of values... My suggestion is... that we frequently identify with music whose value-position objectively contradicts that which we claim in other spheres of life---such as ethics, politics, or education." (Pg. 7-8)
He asserts, "Music-as-art, at its best, is thus redemptive: it gives back to us a sense of our absolute value that a relativist society denies... The enactment of musical artworks requires a letting go of the immediacy that runs counter to the everyday. But its reward is that we are thus enabled to participate in a process which the everyday prevents... Music-as-art ... [involves] us in a process by which that self comes to understand itself more fully as a larger, trans-subjective identity. In this way the value of music-as-art is essentially ethical." (Pg. 9)
He contends that "Classical music... cannot be understood in the terms of popular culture. It is concerned wtih details of its musical language and inner musical form to a degree that popular music is not." (Pg. 46) He points out that "Live performance ensures that we accord a certain primacy to the musical work by forcing us to give in to its temporal processes. Recorded music reverses that equation by allowing us to subordinate the music to the demands of other activities..." (Pg. 54) Later, he observes, "Only recently have we collectively reduced music to the question of immediate pleasure alone, such that choosing between different musical types is no more significant than choosing between different flavors of ice cream." (Pg. 86) Still later, he argues, "music's place in cultural history is eclipsed by the overwhelming insistence on its function as personal pleasure---a problem that French, history, or geography do not face." (Pg. 118)
On a political level, he notes, "Why is participation in classical music elitist? Because only parents with sufficient financial capital and a certain educational background are likely to fund and encourage their children to participate in it. State education policy thus reinforces the social divisions it pretends to oppose." (Pg. 119)
He says, "The spiritual element of music is therefore not some mystical essence or secret ingredient ... by thinking the material elements of the world, it spiritualizes them." (Pg. 71) He concludes, "Not only does music offer the possibility of transcending daily life: it offers... a reshaping of those categories... When we leave the musical work and return to daily life, we have tasted a different way of being, a different perception of the world. Potentially, this leaves us marked by the experience. It subsequently produces an altered perception of the world." (Pg. 129)
This is an excellent meditation and consideration of many issues affecting classical music, and will be of keen interest to anyone similarly concerned. (If you like this book, see also Why Classical Music Still Matters)
What all this means is that classical music has a unique value as a cultural artifact that today's musics, no matter how different they try to be on the surface (with new synthesized sounds, new volume levels, new extraneous gimmicks such as costumes and props), cannot convey. He insightfully points out that often the most advanced technology is used (under the banner of progress) to create the most rudimentary of song forms and structures, and that people are responding to the surface "lust," the sheen of the sound world, rather than intellectually to the construction, the stretching and reevaluating of boundaries. We come to the ironic realization that technologically-crude music made hundreds of years ago is actually more "cutting edge" than the most advanced pop manufactured on synthesizers and computers, because (although he does not quite say this) technology does not replace the human intellect, but it *can* allow it to hide behind a curtain, much like the old man at the end of The Wizard of Oz.
The overall excellence of the book doesn't stop Johnson from making some serious missteps. Like many pro-classical writers, Johnson sees all marketing and image in pop music but misses the considerable marketing and image-making in the classical music industry. Such passages as "The emphasis on the surface of things [in pop music] is essentially inhumane. It is pornographic because it fetishizes the materiality of human existence and denies the spiritual personality that vivifies it from within. Perhaps my use of the term 'pornographic' seems inappropriate and sensationalist in relation to music." In a way, though, there is a *little* bit of a distinction between the fetishisation found in pop music vs. that of classical. As a general rule, the objectification in the latter tends to be imposed on the performer against their will by the recording or promotions company. Of course one can point to the Karajans and Pavorattis, but on the whole classical performers have been dragged into the marketing aspects of classical music--at least, until very recently. Pop music, on the other hand, has thrived on the packaging from day one, with plants in the audiences to scream and jump up and down for Frank Sinatra and the Beatles. And while the portrait of the artist as a hipster of sorts goes back at least as far as Franz Liszt, it has been taken farther by marketers in the last 30 years than any classical artist ever dreamed possible.
Still, Johnson keeps trying to tie classical music's value to some sort of humanitarianism (both unnecessary and naive, in my opinion). On p. 8 he makes one of the book's oddest statements: "Those who devalue art today point out that only in the last few hundred years has our society privileged certain works and activities as art and promoted them to an almost sacred status. But it is no coincidence that this has taken place at the very time that the rationalization of human life--both private and public--has severely threatened the idea of individuals' value by making them dispensable units in a quantitative system." Despite the admitted evils of modern mechanization, I've never read anything in history to indicate that we valued life more in the past than we do now. And I feel the author gets carried away in the "commoditization" of classical music, making the silly statement that packaging has made all music "the same size and shape," i.e., a CD jewel box. How is this different than 60 years ago, when Glenn Miller and Arturo Toscanini were "commoditizised" by identical-looking 78 records?
Johnson isn't completely against today's pop music (I won't call it contemporary or modern music because it is not, except chronologically, as Johnson shows). As he says at one point, "We need to dance as well as be still." But the culture that promotes only dancing, that views any dissent as to the value of dancing as elitist, that condemns that which it does not understand, has never taken the time to sample, and is hostile towards because of imagined cultural baggage, is elitist, closed-ended, and tyrannical--ironically, the very things many of today's young people consider classical institutions to be.
Johnson's discussions about the obsession today with the surface sheen are curious and interesting. Of course, as anyone will quickly point out, superficial populist music has always been among us, and for that matter has always been dominant, at least in terms of sheer number of listeners. The difference, I think, which I don't feel he hit hard enough, is that prior to mass consumption of recorded music, made possible by changes in technology, sociology and psychology that today's listeners only dimly grasp if at all, this populist music was recognized for precisely what it is, diversion with a surface-sheen. Today's popular taste-makers have held this simpler, less-developed music up as Art, or at least serious cultural material. Most of today's taste-makers in the mainstream industry, which boils down to marketers, really (most of whom are in their 20s, and regard The Beatles as ancient music--my injection, not his) say music evaluation is at best "a matter of opinion," and at most, classical music is a despotic artifact of an age no longer relevant. And he says that's nothing more than willful ignorance, one that media outlets and even academic institutions are willing to go along with, for the sake of the all-mighty dollar. Although I would have liked to have seen a deeper examination of this capitalist viewpoint, I am still pleased that books are starting to deal with this obvious-but-ignored issue at all. The same liberals (and conservatives for that matter) who find all sorts of objectionable matter in TV programs, newspapers, and billboard ads give rock music pretty much a free pass. Somehow Calvin Klein underwear ads damage our youth's fragile psyche, but music whose themes and images involve rape, bestiality, murder and mayhem do not. Hmmm...
So why am I withholding the final star? Because in the last few pages he blows it, lapsing into the very sort of subjective rationale for his musical preferences I was cheering him for avoiding. I agree the best of what we call classical music is more complex, more subtle, more existential, and of greater value than "popular culture" for those reasons. However, he then starts giving analogies between the smooth intricacy of the string quartet and the intricacy and smooth functioning of a democracy. He sees direct parallels between one's advanced musical and one's advanced political and civic choices, and argues implicitly that classical music is good for civic harmony. Well now, some of the most fervent classical artists and audiences who ever lived were in Hitler's Nazi Germany. 'Nuff said. Here and throughout the book Johnson seems to think that good art makes for good human beings. Obviously it's never that simple, much as we would like it to be.
But despite a few blemishes, the book is very worth reading. It's refreshing to see anyone tackling these issues at all, and Dr. Johnson tackles most of them with considerable insight.