Vilhelm Hammershoi (英語) ハードカバー – 2008/9/1
Felix Krämer works at the Hamburger Kunsthalle. Naoki Sato is curator at the National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo. Anne-Birgitte Fonsmark is Director of the Ordrupgaard in Copenhagen, the Danish museum of French Impressionism and 19th-century Danish art.
- 出版社 : Royal Academy Books (2008/9/1)
- 発売日 : 2008/9/1
- 言語 : 英語
- ハードカバー : 174ページ
- ISBN-10 : 190571128X
- ISBN-13 : 978-1905711284
- 対象読者年齢 : 13歳歳以上
- 寸法 : 29.21 x 2.24 x 21.92 cm
- Amazon 売れ筋ランキング: - 388,286位洋書 (の売れ筋ランキングを見る洋書)
But maybe the artist has something interesting to say on his use of such a subdued palette and his restriction to so few motifs? "I've no idea. I can't really say anything on the subject. It seems perfectly natural to me, but I can't say why. Perhaps they can best be called neutral and reduced colours. I'm utterly convinced that a painting has the best effects in terms of its colour the fewer colours there are". The words of Vihelm Hammershoi, 1864-1916, considered one of Denmark's greatest masters who was painting at the same time that Post-Impressionist, Fauvist and German Expressionist painters were colouring their world. In fact, Hammershoi's palette is closer to that of Analytical Cubism.
This catalogue, for the first retrospective exhibition of the artist's work in Britain which will also be seen in Japan, brings together 72 paintings reproduced as full-page colour plates together with black and white figures and contemporary photographs. The plates are subdivided into 5 chronological groups: Beginnings, 1883-1890; From Paris to London, 1891-1898; Strandgade 30, 1898-1909; Beyond Stradgade 30, 1898-1909, and Late Works, 1909-1916.
There are three very well-presented essays: Vihelm Hammarshoi: The Poetry of Silence" by Felix Kramer, "Vihelm Hammarshoi: At the Edge of the Golden Age of Danish Painting" by Anne-Birgitte Fonsmark and "The Quotidian View Without Narrative: Connections and Separations between the Interior Paintings of Vihelm Hammarshoi and Seventeenth-century Dutch Interior Paintings" by Naoki Sato. Catalogue entries were written by Kramer and Sato, and the former prepared the illustrated Chronology. The catalogue also contains a List of Exhibitions, Selected Biography, with many Danish books cited, and an Index.
The difficulty of appreciating Hammershoi's work in the 21st century is compounded by our noisy, frenetic and multi-coloured everyday world. In 1905, Rilke wrote that "Hammershøi is not one of those about whom one must speak quickly. His work is long and slow, and will offer plentiful reasons to speak of what is important and essential in art". 4 years later, reviewing the Tenth International Art Exhibition in Munich, the critic Georg Biermann wrote "The wonderful Dane Hammershøi, whose pictures are certainly among the best that the present International has to offer, are nothing else but the lyricism of absolute quietude and seclusion from the world; this modern Nordic Vermeer with the diaphanously soft silvery sheen that fills his interiors and surrounds his figures, possesses the painterly means of a near musical power".
As might be expected, the artist was a slow and meticulous worker, completing relatively few works each year in his flat/studio at Strandgade 30 in Copenhagen, the interior for a third of his 370 works. This flat was very close to the docks and so was certainly not quiet. A woman, alone and isolated, look outs of a window, plays a piano, reads a letter or looks through an open door, and it is here that the link with 17th century Dutch interior painting, which he had seen on trips to Holland in 1887-8, is so obvious. In addition to the well-known interiors of Vermeer, de Hooch, Hoogstraten, Terboch and Metsu, Sato focuses on the work of the little-known Pieter Janssens Elinga, 1632-c.1682, as an inspiration for the Dane in translating a scene into a painting, and further suggests than Hammerskoi saw these works from photographs, which of course were in black and white. However, Sato's suggestion that the artist took from Ibsen's plays which were in his library is less convincing, since any well-read Scandinavian of the time would surely have read these.
Fonsmark suggests that consideration of landscape, interiors and portraits shows that Hammershoi's work had a direct link with that of Eckersberg, Kobke and Constantin Hansen and other painters of the period,1800-1850, known as the Danish Golden Age. Hammershoi's focus on self-absorption and introspection, and his regular use of a window motif is also linked to this period which still informed the teaching at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in 1879-1884 when the artist studied there.
Open doors, corridors (sometimes leading to other doors) and windows are all entrances and exits from a room in which a figure appears trapped, deep in thought, playing the piano or gazing out at a world which seems to be unreachable. When the room is empty, the verticals and horizontals seem all the more powerful, with slanting diagonals of light. Suddenly in "Bedroom, 1890, a triangle appears - which is such a shock! The sudden appearance of a white punch-bowl studded with colour is, similarly, shocking - a blaze of colour against a sombre world.
This was an excellent exhibition and the catalogue fully matches it. In a museum or gallery, works by Hammershoi might have to be displayed separately if they are not to be overshadowed by colourful works.
It is salutary to think that Hammershoi and Munch were painting not so far from one another, at the same time and to such different ends.