Studies in Ethnomethodology (Social and Political Theory) (英語) ペーパーバック – 1991/1/8
Kindle 端末は必要ありません。無料 Kindle アプリのいずれかをダウンロードすると、スマートフォン、タブレットPCで Kindle 本をお読みいただけます。
This is the first appearance in paper back of one of the major classics of contemporary Sociology. Studies in Ethnomethodology has inspired a wide range of important theoretical and empirical work in the social sciences and linguistics. It is one of the most original and controversial works in modern social science and it remains at the centre of debate about the current trends and tasks of sociology and social theory.
Ethnomethodology - the study of the ways in which ordinary people construct a stable social world through everyday utterances and actions - is now a major component of all sociology and linguistics courses. Garfinkel's formidable reputation as one of the worlds leading sociologists rest largely on the work contained in this book.
Studies in Ethnomethodology was originally published by Prentice Hall in 1967 and has remained in print ever since. It is widely used as a text book in this country and in the United States. This new paperback is a special student edition of Garfinkel's modern classic.
'Garfinkel's arguments are expressed with a power and richness that is singular and imperishable... The renewed availability of these classic studies will give rise to the widest understanding of Garfinkel's seminal arguments.' Times Higher Education Supplement商品の説明をすべて表示する
Its focus is the social construction of reality -- a central contruct in sociological theory and research. Briefly, Garfinkle argues that the shared reality that makes possible social intercourse is not fixed, but rather arises as a consenus of participants in social groups. So, for example, manners, rules of conversation, or even definitions of insanity can be shown to be arbitrary and mutable while at the same time indespensible for comprehensible interactions between and among people.
This little book is a must read for any student of social or organizational behavior or anyone curious about the social world. Rarely will you meet a practicing sociologist who does not get a twinkle in his or her eye when someone mentions Studies in Ethnomethodology. It is that good. And that much fun.
So the methodology is not a research method, but rather it's the members methods for constructing reality. So the sense of social reality is constructed using documentary methods. This book shows how that's accomplished.
This was the first real look at how social members make the "social" effect seem real for one another. Ethnomethodology makes none of the assumptions that brought down the Sociology of old. How can the discipline talk of social problems before it knows what the social is?
The Computer scientists have now gotten hold of the ideas in the book and are running hard with it in developing computer systems in terms of human computer interaction (HCI). In my opinion this book and its author started Sociology and its tasks anew. Its unforseen consequence will, in my opinion, lead to a revolution in embedded systems. See the book by Paul Dourish for more on this.
A five star for sure!
Nevertheless, Garfinkel's objective is interesting and useful. He wants to find out how we make the social world understandable for ourselves and each other. The answer, he affirms, is through use of interpretive procedures.
So, what is an interpretive procedure? Here is a homespun example. Suppose a student is 15 minutes late for class. His instructor asks why the student is late, and the student responds by saying "there was a three-car wreck on I-64." In and of itself, this is not a literal answer to the instructor's question. But the instructor can fill in the blanks -- the student was caught up in a traffic jam -- and the student knows that the instructor can fill in the blanks. That knowledge and its use constitutes an interpretive procedure.
In general, the notion of an interpretive procedure is founded on taken-for-granted understandings. In the example, the student takes for granted that the instructor knows that a wreck on I-64 will create a traffic jam, that the student might get caught up in it, and that this might cause the student to be late.
In a presentation at an annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, an ethnomethodologist purported to show how silence is used to invoke the teacher's authority in an elementary school classroom. On film a teacher is shown telling her students to take their seats. One student does not immediately comply. The teacher emphatically says the student's name and then is silent. The student mumbles inaudibly and takes his seat. The point is that the student knew, without being told again, that having his name called out followed by silence meant "take your seat."
Garfinkel views interpretive procedures based on taken-for-granted knowledge as universal. Construed sufficiently abstractly, they apply everywhere. He illustrates the consequences of departures from usual tacitly understood social behavior through the use of "breaching experiments." If a participant in an everyday social setting responds as if he were ignorant of usual taken-for-granted knowledge, a more or less chaotic social situation follows.
Based on my very limited knowledge of the development of ethnomethodology over the years, it is now subsumed by conversational analysis. Whatever it has become, I think that the interpretive procedures themselves are less interesting than the taken-for-granted knowledge on which they are based. How do we acquire it? Maybe this is a problem for someone who does the sociology of knowledge.