The Perfect Weapon: war, sabotage, and fear in the cyber age_ (英語) ペーパーバック – 2018/6/21
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From Russia's tampering with the US election to the WannaCry hack that temporarily crippled the NHS, cyber has become the weapon of choice for democracies, dictators, and terrorists. Cheap to acquire, easily deniable, and used for a variety of malicious purposes - from crippling infrastructure to sowing discord and doubt - cyberweapons are re-writing the rules of warfare. In less than a decade, they have displaced terrorism and nuclear missiles as the biggest immediate threat to international security and to democracy. Here, New York Times correspondent David E. Sanger takes us from the White House Situation Room to the dens of Chinese government hackers and the boardrooms of Silicon Valley, piecing together a remarkable picture of a world now coming face-to-face with the most sophisticated - and arguably most dangerous - weapon ever invented. The Perfect Weapon is the dramatic story of a new era of constant sabotage, misinformation, and fear, in which everyone is a target.
`[Sanger] writes with persuasiveness and authority.' - The Telegraph `[Sanger is] a shrewd and insightful strategic thinker.' - The New York Times `In a chilling new book, The Perfect Weapon, David Sanger details how more than 30 nations have developed effective cyber forces.' - Financial Times `An encyclopedic account of policy-relevant happenings in the cyberworld ... the most comprehensive, readable source of information and insight about the policy quandaries that modern information technology and its destructive potential have spawned.' - New York Times Book Review `A reader finishes this book fully understanding why cyberwar has moved rapidly to the top of America's official list of national security threats.' - David von Drehle, The Washington Post `An encyclopedic account of policy-relevant happenings in the cyberworld ... the most comprehensive, readable source of information and insight about the policy quandaries that modern information technology and its destructive potential have spawned.' - Paul R. Pillar, The New York Times `You may not have realised it but we are at war. A world war. And it's not clear who's winning or who will ultimately win, but the battleground is vast - cyberspace ... David E. Sanger sums up where we are and where we could be heading.' - Jon Wise, Weekend Sport `[A] sobering new book.' - John Naughton, The Guardian商品の説明をすべて表示する
I burned through this book in less than a day. The Perfect Weapon has the page-flipping intensity of the best techno-thriller novels, with the gravitas of meticulously-sourced nonfiction. If I had to sum up this book in one word, it would be “terrifying.”
With true stories from the cyber sabotage of the Democratic Campaign Committee to the penetration of the White House computer networks, this book is a wake-up call for our technology-dependent civilization. I just hope we don’t hit the ‘snooze’ button and go back to sleep.
However it is clear that the general public does not realize the seriousness of the threat. And many in government—federal, state and local don’t understand either.
It is obvious that we are at war. We need a program like Y2K to harden our networks. We need a 9/11 type commission to find out what happened in the 2016 election and we need to protect the upcoming midterms and beyond.
The Russians were able to change voting totals in the Ukraine and shut down their electric grid.
We need paper ballots. How hard would it be to build a touch screen machine that prints your ballot in human readable form with your selections clearly marked. You check it and feed it into the ocr scanner. Paper trail and you check it just like your atm or gasoline receipt.
It would be hard for anyone to hack the voting machines.
The US government has been slow on the uptake to acknowledge this threat. In 2007, the intelligence community's annual worldwide threat assessment delivered to Congress did not even include cyber weapons on the list. At that point, both Russia and China had been building their cyber capabilities for years. Now, of course, attitudes have changed. The United States Cyber Command, created in 2009, was upgraded only in 2018 into a Unified Combatant Command, one of ten in the US armed forces. Cyber Command is headquartered at Fort Meade, along with the National Security Agency, and is commanded by the agency's director. Together, NSA and Cyber Command house both our country's offensive and defensive cyber operations. Sanger explains that the two organizations work together uneasily. Their priorities are sometimes at cross-purposes.
Excessive caution about the threat of cyber weapons
David Sanger is extraordinarily well-connected in Washington. He has been writing on foreign policy, globalization, nuclear proliferation, and the presidency for more than thirty years for the New York Times. He has been the paper's Chief Washington Correspondent since 2006. Throughout The Perfect Weapon, he cites one-on-one conversations with nearly all the major players in the drama he describes. And drama it is. This book details the bureaucratic turf wars, foot-dragging, incompetence, and excessive caution that has so often characterized America's inadequate response to the threat posed by cyber weapons.
The dilemma Sanger describes is worrisome. "America's offensive cyber prowess has so outpaced our defense that officials hesitate to strike back," he writes. Although American companies and government are penetrated online thousands of times every day, the government has rarely spoken out to denounce those responsible. Partly, this is because it may take days, weeks, or even months to assemble definitive proof about who launched a given attack. But it's also because officials in the CIA, NSA, Pentagon, and White House are unwilling for our adversaries to gain any insight into how we obtained the information. Even when we know perfectly well who's responsible, they decline to speak out. Simply citing specific evidence could reveal the existence of American or Allied "implants" in their computer systems. Like many of the top former officials he interviewed, Sanger regards that reluctance to show our cards as an error.
"The US has only rarely activated cyber weapons"
Unless the government can accuse an adversary in public, it's hampered from retaliating. The upshot is that the US has only rarely activated cyber weapons, so far as we know. (The most notable exceptions were the Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear production facilities in 2010, carried out jointly with Israel, and the attack on North Korea's launch systems that caused its missiles to explode or fall into the sea.) However, Russia has not hesitated to attack weaker nations, chiefly Ukraine and Estonia, as well as both the United States and Western Europe.
As Sanger points out, there are ways, however inadequate, that the United States might combat a nuclear attack. There is always a warning, even if it's measured only in minutes. With cyber weapons, however, there is no warning. And "In almost every classified Pentagon scenario for how a future confrontation with Russia and China, even Iran and North Korea, might play out, the adversary's first strike against the United States would include a cyber barrage aimed at civilians." And the threat isn't limited to those four hostile countries. "A decade ago," Sanger notes, "there were three or four nations with effective cyber forces; now there are more than thirty." Now we face the proliferation of cyber weapons, not just nuclear devices.
About the author
David E. Sanger has written two books on American foreign policy as well as The Perfect Weapon, his most recent work. He is the Chief Washington Correspondent for the New York Times.
Neither of us really realized the serverity of the Sony hack, the awfulness (and damage) done by the betrayal by people who stole information and then gave it to our enemies, the ease and ability of North Koreans, the brilliance of the Chinese, the real threat by the Russians ... on and on ... and then there is the lazy arrogance (Emperor's New Clothing) of our own government!
All in all, it was both an eye opener and shocking to learn the 'real' reality of our world today.