PHP Objects, Patterns and Practice (Expert's Voice in Open Source) (英語) ペーパーバック – 2010/6/1
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This book takes you beyond the PHP basics to the enterprise development practices used by professional programmers. Updated for PHP 5.3 with new sections on closures, namespaces, and continuous integration, this edition will teach you about object features such as abstract classes, reflection, interfaces, and error handling. You’ll also discover object tools to help you learn more about your classes, objects, and methods.
Then you’ll move into design patterns and the principles that make patterns powerful. You’ll learn both classic design patterns and enterprise and database patterns with easy-to-follow examples.
Finally, you’ll discover how to put it all into practice to help turn great code into successful projects. You’ll learn how to manage multiple developers with Subversion, and how to build and install using Phing and PEAR. You’ll also learn strategies for automated testing and building, including continuous integration.
Taken together, these three elements―object fundamentals, design principles, and best practices―will help you develop elegant and rock-solid systems.
Matt Zandstra has worked as a web programmer, consultant, and writer for nearly two decades. He is the author of SAMS Teach Yourself PHP in 24 Hours (three editions) and a contributor to DHTML Unleashed. He has written articles for Linux Magazine, Zend.com, IBM DeveloperWorks, and php|architect Magazine, among others. Matt works as a consultant advising companies on their architectures and system management, and also develops systems primarily with PHP, and Java. Matt also writes fiction.
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First, the good news:
This book is a crash course on OOP design and thought. It borrows heavily from two monumentous texts in the field - the Gang of Four's book, and Java Enterprise Patterns - and condences their essences into an easy to swallow form. The basics are all here: how to create well designed classes, how to instantiate objects, etc. There's a hidden gem in the introductory portion of the book: the Reflection API. This API is built into PHP, and gives the coder unparalleled access to the guts of the classes and objects in a given project. It definitely has its uses.
The patterns are all generally useful, with the only exception perhaps being the Interpreter pattern. I'm just not convinced that creating one's own command line interface syntax is necessary, given that PHP projects aren't usually interactive. It seems like something best left to an appendex, or extra web content.
Now, for the bad news:
Some sections of the book, especially some of the code examples, could've used a better editor. Small things, the kinds of things that can trip up inexperienced coders, crop up. Using private properties instead of protected. Using the wrong variable name between examples. That sort of thing.
There's also a lack of a satisfying conclusion, so-to-speak. Zandstra himself claims that generating objects is perhaps the hardest thing to demonstrate. Yet, most of his examples (excepting the patterns late in the book) are canned. Objects and classes exist only to drive the theory behind a pattern home. Few real world examples are given. Admittedly, some patterns are simple to transfer to a real project, but concrete examples of that nature could serve to further cement his point. For example, it's not difficult to see how the Composite pattern would work well for dealing with an XML document, but would there ever be a need for a Visitor object to act on one?
Finally, and in continuation of my last criticism, Zandstra never touches one of the things PHP is used the most for: form handling. Can forms be represented by classes? Could forms be generated by objects (perhaps using a Factory pattern)? What about form validators? Wouldn't the Strategy or Decorator pattern work? Supplementing his online Civilization game and CLI/quiz examples with this would've really put the book over the top.
Still, with that said, PHP Objects, Patterns, and Practice is still a text that gets far more right than wrong. It's definitely a must-buy for those PHP coders looking to write modular code.
That being said, the Kindle version has one major issue: the code samples. They look like someone printed them out with a dot-matrix printer, then scanned them at 150 DPI, saved as BMPs to preserve all the visual errors on the scan, and pasted them into the book as images. In other words, the code samples are not text at all - they are really, really crappy images and you will often find yourself squinting to make out all the details of the fuzzy "text".
This isn't a dealbreaker - after all, any programming book you buy today has downloadable samples of all code available somewhere on the Internet... but it IS an annoyance. Why they couldn't produce the code in real text with an alternate font I have no idea. Why they couldn't present higher quality images of the code I also have no idea.
Suffice to say, if you buy this for the Kindle, expect 5 star content with 3 star presentation - thereby bringing us to 4 overall.
I'd recommend the book to those who already have an advanced PHP knowledge but are looking to take their code another step forward by improving it's re-usability. It's also a great read if you want to find out the power that PHP 5 has over PHP 4.
Note: this book doesn't contain code that you can use. It teaches you the principles that you should use in your own projects.
At the moment, very few php books come close in trying to actually present the language as a real contender for serious and professional web development. This book attempts just that.
PHP has come a long way since its inception, but the teaching material has not really caught up and the community is still pestered with bad code, architecture and practice. This book is an eye opener as it presents php for what it can be: a convenient and flexible tool that, in the right hands, can tough up and allow a programmer to get work done efficiently. It's not to say that php can do everything, but before you blame it as the root of all evil, you should definitely understand how you, the programmer, can work at improving the quality of your code. This text offers some insight into tried and true practices, usually well established in other more mature communities.
There are 3 parts:
The Objects part is a nice introduction to many goodies in the new PHP5 object model (the whole thing is php5 centric).
Some of the topics covered in the section matter more than others imo, since in your practice you'll encounter and will definitely draw some values from them. So pay particular attention to: Autoloading, Exception handling, magic methods, namespaces, reflection.
Because PHP is still a language in search for an identity, it borrows features, coding styles and development philosophy from other languages. Despite the fact that the two are fundamentally very different, Java has heavily influenced PHP's OO design and syntax. However, some of the PHP reimplementation just ended up being "simili" stuff, rather than the real thing. That is, it has the Java flavor, but doesn't actually carry any caffeine. Unfortunately, the book doesn't dig into those details and just serves the Kool-Aid as is.
Another complaint is that you are shown many tools and given a description of how they work, but there is little depth as to when to actually use them. Java and Python programmers borrowing PHP for a project might have an easier time translating this knowledge into actual practice, since their community would have likely previously exposed them to situations these tools were meant for.
If I had to pick one particular topic that I felt was missing from the Objects section, it would be an intro to the SPL. Look for it.
If you would allow me some personal and opinionated advices (be forewarned that a lot of these go against the current dogma in PHP):
- private/protected/public: it's definitely useful to understand the _idea_ behind having a public and a private programming interface, but it's a bit of a fallacy to enforce this with actual language constructs in a dynamic technology like PHP, since it doesn't actually provide much benefits to the interpreter. Who are we then "protecting" the code from exactly, the programmer? When other concepts like inheritance get involved, things get even more cumbersome, because PHP is missing some features that allow a technology like Java to get away with it all (method overloading anyone?). An alternative approach is to leave everything public and then follow the widely adopted _convention_ to prefix what is considered private with an underscore. Programmers using your API will get a hint that the $_purifiedData property was probably not meant to be directly accessed, but in case they decide to transgress that rule, they can. If you still insist on enforcing visibility though, then only use the protected and public keywords, forget private altogether.
- inheritance: learn how it works, but most importantly, learn when to avoid it and remember to strive for "Composition over Inheritance" (see Patterns section).
- interfaces: Learn about type-checking and type-hinting and use interfaces for that purpose specifically. You can declare constants within your interfaces, but I'd recommend against also declaring methods in them. It will only constrain your APIs, since PHP doesn't allow method overloading like Java would (this is one thing many PHP so-called experts are completely oblivious about when they merrily sprinkle their code with interfaces). Another route altogether would be to simply stop relying on interfaces and type-hinting and adopt 'duck-typing', an approach more natural to dynamically-typed languages such as Python, Ruby and I dare to say, PHP.
The next section of the book is on Patterns. It's not so much about PHP than it is an attempt at making a less crappy programmer out of YOU. If you're relatively new to programming and you've chosen PHP to make your first steps, please read this section of the book, for the sake of minimizing the damage you certainly will do. This is an intro to better code organization and to the world of design patterns as they can be applied to php. If you've heard of such things as Singleton, Observer, Registry, Controller, MVC and are still scratching your head, this could apply to you to.
The Practice section was a bit of a let down. If the author cares for some suggestions:
- forget CVS: there are currently a number of popular and very good open source SCMs, Git and Mercurial currently leading the pack. At the very least, teach the increasingly outdated SVN, but this book would actually gain some value if you only just mentioned the concept of revision control, without actually naming CVS.
- forget PEAR: instead have a chapter on frameworks, which nicely ties up with what the book tries to teach.
The PHP object section is worth the cost of admission alone with this title. Not only covering the updates to PHP 5.3 but showing how to use them. From the coverage of the php "magic functions" to those of you struggling to put together a solid object model this is one of the most clearly written descriptions I've read. The examples of how to use abstract classes and inheritance effectively are especially helpful and setup a great transition to working with design patterns.
Design Patterns make up the meat of this book, and rightly so. I finally get the purpose of design patterns and how to use them with my work. Although, I'm by far not an expert on the topic, from a learning perspective, it is a spot on effective at teaching the principles of this sometimes complicated area.
The Practice portion of this book is the only area I could see some better coverage on. While the topics and tools are covered expertly, it feels dated. From my experience with the PHP/Open source community, the tools covered are being eclipsed by distributed version control, and tighter IDE support. While I know folks are still using SVN, it would have been nice to see an updated chapter on using git or Mercurial.
PHP Objects, Patterns, and Practice is an excellent book. If you are wanting to learn more about the very important topics covered, then this is probably the best starting point out there.