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Mother Nature: Maternal Instincts and How They Shape the Human Species (英語) ペーパーバック – 2000/9/5

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内容紹介

Maternal instinct--the all-consuming, utterly selfless love that mothers lavish on their children--has long been assumed to be an innate, indeed defining element of a woman's nature. But is it? In this provocative, groundbreaking book, renowned anthropologist (and mother) Sarah Blaffer Hrdy shares a radical new vision of motherhood and its crucial role in human evolution.

Hrdy strips away stereotypes and gender-biased myths to demonstrate that traditional views of maternal behavior are essentially wishful thinking codified as objective observation. As Hrdy argues, far from being "selfless," successful primate mothers have always combined nurturing with ambition, mother love with sexual love, ambivalence with devotion. In fact all mothers, in the struggle to guarantee both their own survival and that of their offspring, deal nimbly with competing demands and conflicting strategies.

In her nuanced, stunningly original interpretation of the relationships between mothers and fathers, mothers and babies, and mothers and their social groups, Hrdy offers not only a revolutionary new meaning to motherhood but an important new understanding of human evolution. Written with grace and clarity, suffused with the wisdom of a long and distinguished career, Mother Nature is a profound contribution to our understanding of who we are as a species--and why we have become this way.

出版社からのコメント

"Sarah Hrdy's magisterial survey of childbearing through the ages sets a new standard for the graceful blending of scholarship, field research and personal experience. As meticulously documented as the book is, it never loses the human touch...Mother Nature is one of those landmark books that forces you to rethink everything you thought you knew about human nature..."
-- San Francisco Chronicle

"This is a superb book. It is beautifully and clearly written, by one of the nation's leading primatologists and sociobiologists, without sacrificing intellectual rigor; it is the best introduction I know to both fields. It establishes more convincingly than any other work with which I am familiar the relevance of the study of (other) primates and of human evolution, to urgent current issues of public policy involving women, children, and the family."
-- Richard Posner, Chief Judge, US Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit

"A magnificent synthesis of ideas about motherhood, this is a book brimming with warmth, wisdom, and wit. It is not easy in a polarised academic world to keep a foot in the feminist camp and another in evolutionary psychology, nor to bridge the arts and sciences so effortlessly. But Sarah Blaffer Hrdy achieves these feats."
-- Matt Ridley, author of The Origins of Virtue : Human Instincts and the Evolution of Cooperation

"Hrdy has given us a truly monumental work, as elegant as it is insightful. It took a woman scientist to find the rightful place of our species in the matrix of the animal kingdom, and Hrdy has done so brilliantly. This is by no means the usual psychobabble or hodge podge of animal behavior that other authors so often use to define us -- here is a clear and telling examination of a hitherto almost unknown organism -- the human female. Any woman wanting to know who she really is will find out in the pages of this tremendously important work of real science by a real scientist."
-- Elizabeth Marshall Thomas

"This is a brilliant, liberating book on a profoundly important subject. Sarah Hrdy, the leading scientific authority on motherhood, is also, to the benefit of us all, one of the best stylists now writing on any subject in science."
-- E.O. Wilson

"Mother Nature is a pioneering reassessment of key assumptions in debates about human evolution. By demonstrating how female strategies as mates and mothers have shaped the evolutionary process throughout nature, Hrdy succeeds in overturning some of the most entrenched theories in this scientific domain. A worthy companion to Darwin's Descent of Man, and an endlessly fascinating read, Mother Nature reflects a lifetime of bold research and judicious thought by one of the foremost primatologists of our day."
-- Frank Sulloway

"Mother Nature is a stunning achievement. The book reveals the highest scholarship with an unparalleled breadth in the use of the comparative method. Hrdy expertly uses the comparative method. Hrdy expertly uses the comparative method to illustrate her points by contrasting biology and behavior across species and orders, and by making full use of human variation both through evolutionary and historical time and across space and cultures. This book is a very accessible, scientific discussion of the evolutionary history of maternal care written by a first rate scientist."--Jane B. Lancaster, Editor of Human Nature

"By demolishing superstitions that have long clouded our true natures, Sarah Hrdy shows how knowledge may be our best tool for achieving justice among women, men, and the generations that follow. Clear-eyed science can equip us for this liberating journey, far better than any rigid ideology. Mother Nature takes us one bold step along that road."
-- David Brin, author of Glory Season and The Transparent Society

"This is a deep and brilliant work, a masterful account of mother nature and the nature of motherhood, with a superb selection of photos, built on a powerful logic by someone who easily and clearily sees life both from the inside and the outside."
-- Robert Trivers, Professor of Anthropology and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University

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  • ペーパーバック: 752ページ
  • 出版社: Ballantine Books (2000/9/5)
  • 言語: 英語
  • ISBN-10: 0345408934
  • ISBN-13: 978-0345408938
  • 発売日: 2000/9/5
  • 商品パッケージの寸法: 15.4 x 3.2 x 23.3 cm
  • おすすめ度: 5つ星のうち 3.5 2件のカスタマーレビュー
  • Amazon 売れ筋ランキング: 洋書 - 147,115位 (洋書の売れ筋ランキングを見る)
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投稿者 シン 投稿日 2015/3/1
形式: ペーパーバック Amazonで購入
私はこの本を推奨しない、専門家は別として。
 ほ乳類のみならず他の脊椎動物の母親とその子の関係に関して、多岐にわたる知見を駆使して解明を試みた著書。内応は広範にわたり、レミングの出生調整なども知り得た。ただし、この例を講義に使いたかったが、文献にたどり着けないので本当かどうか疑問ではある。しかし記述はヒトに近い霊長類(霊長類の用語は差別的だが)に最も多く割かれているので、人の出産、育児、幼児殺しに敷延できるかもしれない。
 個人的な感想ではあるが、多岐にわたることがかえって論点を鮮明にすることを妨げていると思う。せっかちだとの非難を恐れずに言えば、で何が言いたいの? と言いたくなる個所が多く見られる。本を厚くするためとは考えたくないが、論点をもっと簡潔にしてほしかった。
 何よりも英語の構文が複雑である。自然科学、それも実験科学の論文に慣れた著者なら、このような書き方は、まずしない。米口語(と思う、辞書に出てこないから)の理解できない単語や成句も多すぎる。対象とする読者がアメリカのためだろうが、心理学者(進化学者?)はかく論じるのかと思えた。
 本著を読破し理解された方に敬意を表したいが、私は内容の半分程度しか理解できなかった。いずれ翻訳を読むことになるだろう。
コメント 1人のお客様がこれが役に立ったと考えています. このレビューは参考になりましたか? はい いいえ 評価を送る...
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形式: ハードカバー
ハーディによるヒトの母と子の進化生態学の啓蒙書.母の視点,子の視点からの生態戦略,条件付戦略,発達戦略,トレードオフ,オスとメスのコンフリクト(量か質か),親と子のコンフリクト,文化,歴史,ジェノミックインプリンティング,アタッチメントセオリーそして働く母と子育ての葛藤まで充実した内容.衝撃的なのはその中で子殺し,捨て子の与えた影響の大きさ.父親以外のオスからの攻撃に加えて,母の戦略としての捨て子のリスクとそれに対抗する子の戦略が詳しく考察される.ボリューム感満点,読後感は充実の一言.
コメント 5人のお客様がこれが役に立ったと考えています. このレビューは参考になりましたか? はい いいえ 評価を送る...
フィードバックありがとうございました。
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Amazon.com で最も参考になったカスタマーレビュー (beta)

Amazon.com: 5つ星のうち 4.6 51 件のカスタマーレビュー
6 人中、6人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
5つ星のうち 5.0 A valuable corrective to male-centered sociobiology 2009/8/27
投稿者 Hagios - (Amazon.com)
形式: ペーパーバック Amazonで購入
Sociobiology has historically been centered on males. Consider the classic case of the langur monkey. When an alpha male deposes a rival male and claims his harem the first thing he does is kill the infants. That brings the females into heat sooner and allows him to reproduce sooner. Infanticide is in his rational self-interest (Sarah Blaffer Hrdy was actually the one who figured this out). The implication is that males are in a life and death struggle to become alpha and females just want to breed with the winner. To be sure, traditional sociobiology has some modest correctives for the myth of the "coy female and promiscuous male." In the case of a monogamous species males and females partner up. In that case the alpha males cannot claim a harem of females. But females can still breed with an alpha male by having an adulterous affair. Not every woman can marry an alpha male but she certainly can copulate with one. In fact, cryptic female choice shows that females often stage sperm competitions in their vagina. The strategy is simple: copulate with many males in a short period of time and let the fittest sperm win. Gangbangs clearly falsify the "coy female" model. But even so, they continue to reinforces the same tired narrative: males are locked in a struggle for status while females are only interested in breeding with the winner.

Sarah Blaffer Hrdy convincingly shows that females are locked in their own brutal status-seeking competition. Females are bigger and stronger than the males in many species such as mole rats, jackrabbits, marmosets, and bats. Among solitary species these "big mothers" are able to control a larger territory than their smaller and weaker rival females. That means more food for their offspring. Among social animals such as hyenas the alpha females are able to claim a larger share of the group's food for herself and her offspring. The lower status females have to make do with the scraps. In some species the alpha females don't even let the low-status females breed. They are forced to wait for the alpha female to die, at which time they may become the new alpha and gain the power they need to breed.

Hrdy also shows that infanticide isn't just for males. Chimp females do not let rival females hold their babies because they may not get them back alive. Killing a rival's children mean more food and higher status for her own offspring. That's why babies often have stranger anxiety - it is the baby's defense mechanism against infanticide. Babies know perfectly well that they are not safe with strangers. In fact, females have a good reason to kill their own offspring. A popular slogan from sociobiology is that "sperm are cheaper than eggs", which means that procreating takes a smaller investment for males than females. That's what leads to the myth of the coy female and promiscuous male. But a corollary would be that "eggs are cheaper than caring for offspring." It doesn't make evolutionary sense for a female to invest her time and energy caring for a weak, sickly, or disabled infant. Better to kill it and try again. Killing healthy offspring also makes sense if the female doesn't have a high enough social status to secure food for it. Better to cut her losses early than to waste time trying to feed it. In our Judeo-Christian culture we expect mothers to attach immediately to babies but that is actually unnatural in most human cultures. Attachment (and therefore love) is conditional on having a healthy baby and the status needed to care for it.

A lot of people will find these revelations shocking. Hrdy agrees. The traditional picture of sociobiology is that "males do a lot of ugly things to get ahead." Hrdy points out that females do a lot of ugly things to get ahead too. But don't confuse explaining the facts with a moral stand. That is the logical fallacy of the appeal to nature - basing morality on the way the natural world works. The best solution would be to bring about a detente in the status-seeking arms race. In one of the more poignant quotes Hrdy writes: "Sociobiology is not a field known for the encouraging news it offers either sex. Yet its most promising revelation to date has to be that over evolutionary time, lifelong monogamy turns out to be the cure for all sorts of detrimental devices that one sex uses to the exploit the other." Indeed.

This book is pretty dense so I would start with something a bit easier if this is your first exposure to sociobiology. Start with The Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and People by David Barash to get an overview of sociobiology. The Triumph of Sociobiology is also good.
2 人中、2人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
5つ星のうち 5.0 Amazing Motherhood 2010/9/3
投稿者 Helen M. Parramore - (Amazon.com)
形式: ペーパーバック Amazonで購入
I first read this book when it originally came out back in the '90s, in fact I reviewed it for the Tampa Tribune. It is a tender, thoughtful, yet scientific study of mothers' behaviors in a myriad of species, without a trace of moral judgment or criticism. Sarah Hrdy says: this is what mothers do and what motherhood is all about. In my enthusiasm, I loaned my book to friends and never got it back, but I've been wishing I could read it again all these years. And now, thanks to Amazon, I am, and it is still a great, amazing study of motherhood. I wish Freud could read it, and the pope, and few other judgmental people like that who think they know all about mothering. They don't have a clue.
1 人中、1人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
5つ星のうち 5.0 Excellent book on motherhood 2013/9/6
投稿者 beaverkeeper - (Amazon.com)
形式: ペーパーバック Amazonで購入
I only wish I had had this book to read when my own children were young. Sarah Hrdy is a creative and courageous explorer - how she managed to set off on her line of inquiry, coming out of the fiercely patriarchal Harvard-Cambridge MA setting in the 1960's amazes me. We are lucky to have such a logical, thoughtful, and adventurous explorer in our midst.
13 人中、11人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
5つ星のうち 5.0 A Mother's Day Book for Thinking Moms 2002/6/5
投稿者 カスタマー - (Amazon.com)
形式: ペーパーバック Amazonで購入
This is a wonderfully written book about the nature of the maternal investment in offspring (in humans). Hrdy extends the concept of sexual selection into the realm of parenting and that is an extremely powerful and brilliant insight. Most books about mate choice end with pregnancy. This book doesn't because that is not the end for females. This particular insight is one that I think only a woman could have--let's have more women working in this field!. Any evolutionary psychology or biology that proceeds from here will have to consider Hrdy's contribution!
This book is also a bit of a shock--it explores how moms ruthlessly cut their losses and why--not a pretty story at all. I was especially undone by Hrdy's account of all the "Espositos" in Italy. The number of children left in foundling hospitals throughout is staggering. It's even worse than the 46K plus in Florida's foster care system in 2002 (with 1000+ missing!).
Hrdy also explores connections between the erotic and the maternal, something that will no doubt freak some people out. But she does this with a cool scientists gaze and a warm human voice. She seems very generous toward readers and their potential discomfort with the more startling phemomena she wants to account for.
Hrdy is a primalogist and a mom. The book is not entirely distrubing--it also accounts for intense feelings of love moms have for their children.
I was also excited to read in her book about Darwin's French translator, Clemance Royer! This book will delight anyone interested in women's intellectual history, parenting, evolutionary biology, or primatology.
Thank You Dr.Hrdy!
2 人中、2人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
5つ星のうち 5.0 what we learn from mothers of other species- read here 2010/10/25
投稿者 managementgal - (Amazon.com)
形式: ペーパーバック Amazonで購入
I love when I find a good book that does not flinch in the eye of "science trends" or popular media" - but says it like it universally is- animal mothers in nature have alot to teach us as human mothers. This book gives insight and as a new mom myself, I carried the knowledge I learned during my pregancy and with an infant. This is a great gift for a pregnant woman or new mom.
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