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Linked: The New Science Of Networks Science Of Networks (英語) ハードカバー – 2002/5/14

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 「ネットワークに注目しよう」——― 本書のメッセージはいたってシンプルだ。これは、ネットワーク理論の誕生、特徴、進化について詳しく解説した本である。本書でバラバシはこう主張する。ネットワーク理論を、自然、社会、テクノロジー全般にまであてはめて、統一されたフレームワークを構築しよう。そのうえであらゆる事象をよりよく理解し、インターネットから身体的病気に至るまでのさまざまな問題を解決しよう。ネットワークはいたるところに存在する。つまるところ、私たちに必要なのは、それを見きわめる「目」だけなのだ、と。


   本書は、地球上すべての事象を結ぶネットワークをとりあげた、驚くべき1冊。ひとたびページをめくれば、専門分野という従来の枠組みを越えた、自由な知識空間への旅が可能になる。15におよぶ「リンク」を紹介することで、「ネットワークの新科学」という新たな革命を詳説した、見逃せない1冊。(Book Description)


In the 1980's, James Gleick's Chaos introduced the world to complexity. Now, Albert-László Barabási's Linked reveals the next major scientific leap: the study of networks. We've long suspected that we live in a small world, where everything is connected to everything else. Indeed, networks are pervasive--from the human brain to the Internet to the economy to our group of friends. These linkages, it turns out, aren't random. All networks, to the great surprise of scientists, have an underlying order and follow simple laws. Understanding the structure and behavior of these networks will help us do some amazing things, from designing the optimal organization of a firm to stopping a disease outbreak before it spreads catastrophically.In Linked, Barabási, a physicist whose work has revolutionized the study of networks, traces the development of this rapidly unfolding science and introduces us to the scientists carrying out this pioneering work. These "new cartographers" are mapping networks in a wide range of scientific disciplines, proving that social networks, corporations, and cells are more similar than they are different, and providing important new insights into the interconnected world around us. This knowledge, says Barabási, can shed light on the robustness of the Internet, the spread of fads and viruses, even the future of democracy. Engaging and authoritative, Linked provides an exciting preview of the next century in science, guaranteed to be transformed by these amazing discoveries.From Linked:This book has a simple message: think networks. It is about how networks emerge, what they look like, and how they evolve. It aims to develop a web-based view of nature, society, and technology, providing a unified framework to better understand issues ranging from the vulnerability of the Internet to the spread of diseases. Networks are present everywhere. All we need is an eye for them...We will see the challenges doctors face when they attempt to cure a disease by focusing on a single molecule or gene, disregarding the complex interconnected nature of the living matter. We will see that hackers are not alone in attacking networks: we all play Goliath, firing shots at a fragile ecological network that, without further support, could soon replicate our worst nightmares by turning us into an isolated group of species...Linked is meant to be an eye-opening trip that challenges you to walk across disciplines by stepping out of the box of reductionism. It is an invitation to explore link by link the next scientific revolution: the new science of networks.



  • ハードカバー: 288ページ
  • 出版社: Basic Books (2002/5/14)
  • 言語: 英語
  • ISBN-10: 0738206679
  • ISBN-13: 978-0738206677
  • 発売日: 2002/5/14
  • 商品パッケージの寸法: 23.6 x 16 x 2.4 cm
  • おすすめ度: 5つ星のうち 5.0 2件のカスタマーレビュー
  • Amazon 売れ筋ランキング: 洋書 - 201,050位 (洋書の売れ筋ランキングを見る)
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5つ星のうち 5.0 Dull title, superb book 2010/4/18
投稿者 Camber - (Amazon.com)
形式: ペーパーバック Amazonで購入
This book describes the emergence of an important new area of science, and it's written by Alberto-Laszlo Barabasi, one of the pioneers and leaders in the field. The writing is clear and engaging, so the book should be fairly easy to read by general readers reasonably comfortable with science. Accommodating such a broad audience does limit the technical depth, but there's still plenty of detail, and the book has abundant endnotes which go into further detail and also link the book with the professional literature (pun intended).

The systematic presentation of the book makes it fairly easy to summarize:

(1) Many systems are complex, and thus are not amenable to conventional reductionism. Instead, complex systems typically involve networks.

(2) The study of networks began with "simple" graph theory, and then progressed to random networks in which most nodes have the about the same number of links.

(3) Real-world networks tend to be "small worlds" in the sense that the shortest path from a given node to any other node is typically only several links. This is the case even for networks with millions or billions of nodes.

(4) Rather than being entirely random, real-world networks tend to display clustering, with "weak links" between clusters. These weak links, which may be random, are the key to making these networks small worlds.

(5) Small-world networks tend to have a minority of highly-linked "hub" nodes which shorten the average path between nodes. More precisely, such networks tend to have a hierarchical scale-free structure (topology) which follows a power law with an exponent of 2 to 3, such that there are many nodes with few links and progressively fewer nodes as the number of links per node increases (again, hub nodes have the most links). (By the way, the ratings of this book roughly follow a power law distribution.)

(6) Scale-free structure in networks is largely the result of a preferential attachment process in which well-connected and competitively fitter nodes have a greater ability to attract further links as the network grows ("the rich get richer"). If a single node has dominant fitness, a "winner takes all" effect can occur in which the network develops a star structure rather than a scale-free structure.

(7) Unlike random networks, scale-free networks are robust against even a large number of random removals of nodes. This is largely because the minority of hub nodes keeps the network connected. However, targeted removal of several hub nodes (~5% to 15%) can cause a scale-free network to collapse (loose connectivity), thus making such networks vulnerable to attack. The problem is compounded if such networks are vulnerable to cascading failures.

(8) Viruses, fads, information, etc. can readily spread in scale-free networks because there is no minimum threshold which the spreading rate needs to exceed.

(9) Because the links in the Web are directed, the Web doesn't form a single homogeneous network, but rather has a fragmented structure involving four major "continents" and some "islands", and there is fragmentation within these continents as well.

(10) Behavior of living cells is controlled by multiple layers of networks, including regulatory and metabolic networks. These networks typically have a scale-free structure with an average path length of about three. Across organisms, the hubs in these networks tend to be the same, but the other nodes (molecules) vary widely. This is why targeting drugs at hubs can be both effective and can have side effects (presumably, the key is to find and target hubs which are specific to disease states, if such hubs exist).

(11) The economy is a network in which hub organizations tend to accumulate links as the network grows by absorbing smaller nodes through mergers and acquisitions.

(12) Highly "optimized" organizations with a tight hierarchy tend to be less adaptive than networked organizations, and thus susceptible to failure.

(13) Networked economies are susceptible to cascading failures, especially when the hubs become "too big to fail" (Barabasi's warning here was of course all too accurate).

(14) Real networks tend to have a hierarchically modular structure, while still being scale-free.

The only significant "negative" is that this book came out in 2002/2003, whereas network science has continued to develop since then. However, Barabasi has another book (Bursts: The Hidden Pattern Behind Everything We Do) coming out in just a few weeks, which should bring us up to date, and it makes sense to read "Linked" first, so that you can start at the beginning. Very highly recommended.
5つ星のうち 5.0 Mapping the Internet 2012/5/14
投稿者 Nick Danger - (Amazon.com)
形式: ペーパーバック Amazonで購入
This book is about the peculiar results obtained when the author set out to "map the internet". Just as we have maps of cities and towns it would be useful to know how to get from here to there via electronic means. One of the premises is that most people don't know that someone somewhere has produced information and published it to the internet unless your part of that "community". The author goes into detail about how new information is constantly being produced but that we can't find it unless it is connected thru "hubs" that many of us connect to in various ways (google, amazon, etc.). These hubs provide links to other hubs that in turn lead us to other hubs. Its all about dissemination of information. Why do some videos go viral and others never even get started? They make reference to the game "6 Degrees of Kevin Bacon" to illustate how all of us are loosely connected in very short distances via particular routes. For example we all know someone that everyone knows for some reason or another. I wonder aloud how this field will boom into a science and how retailers will exploit it. I remember a line from a book about the Manhatten Project that says something to the effect that "technology itself in not inherently good or bad, its the implementation of technology that causes the distinction." You can't tell me that sharing all that information on Facebook doesn't have some negative consequences.
5つ星のうち 4.0 Very impressed, picked up new ideas. 2012/3/11
投稿者 Glenn D. Robinson - (Amazon.com)
形式: ペーパーバック Amazonで購入
Very impressed with this book on how people, organizations and other things are linked. We have all heard of 6 degrees of Kevin Bacon, yet the author writes it is less than 3 degrees of Kevin Bacon. Using the internet to find the connections of networks, the studies have improved. The first study of the power of networking can go back to St Paul and the spread of Christianity. Later examples are the Air France Flight Attendant who spread AIDS, the many internet viruses and the 9/11 terrorists. Using these, how do we use our own networks? The fact is the power is actually not from our primary network, but our secondary network. The reason being is that our primary network has too much ego and history built in for much change, but the secondary network does not. While this book was written in 2002 and is probably outdated in some reagard (as much more data has obeen accumalted since), it is very fascinating and worth the read.
5つ星のうち 3.0 Interesting if you know nothing at all about the topic 2015/2/7
投稿者 Daniel MMM - (Amazon.com)
形式: ペーパーバック Amazonで購入
I agree with several other reviewers in that the book is repetitive and somewhat boring at times. The whole thing could have been condensed in way less pages. It is nonetheless a good overview and introduction of networks to people with no background. Also agree that the author raves too much about his own research and how great it was/is, but that didn't bother me.
5つ星のうち 5.0 Great read! 2016/5/30
投稿者 jim - (Amazon.com)
形式: Kindle版 Amazonで購入
Excellent exploration into the science of networks, or the new science of networks, the network society, economy, geopolitics and overall social change that is enabled by this phenomena (the World Wide Web).
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