Grand Hotel Abyss: The Lives of the Frankfurt School (英語) ペーパーバック – 2017/9/26
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Who were the Frankfurt School—Benjamin, Adorno, Marcuse, Horkheimer—and why do they matter today?
In 1923, a group of young radical German thinkers and intellectuals came together to at Victoria Alle 7, Frankfurt, determined to explain the workings of the modern world. Among the most prominent members of what became the Frankfurt School were the philosophers Walter Benjamin, Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Herbert Marcuse. Not only would they change the way we think, but also the subjects we deem worthy of intellectual investigation. Their lives, like their ideas, profoundly, sometimes tragically, reflected and shaped the shattering events of the twentieth century.
Grand Hotel Abyss combines biography, philosophy, and storytelling to reveal how the Frankfurt thinkers gathered in hopes of understanding the politics of culture during the rise of fascism. Some of them, forced to escape the horrors of Nazi Germany, later found exile in the United States. Benjamin, with his last great work—the incomplete Arcades Project—in his suitcase, was arrested in Spain and committed suicide when threatened with deportation to Nazi-occupied France. On the other side of the Atlantic, Adorno failed in his bid to become a Hollywood screenwriter, denounced jazz, and even met Charlie Chaplin in Malibu.
After the war, there was a resurgence of interest in the School. From the relative comfort of sun-drenched California, Herbert Marcuse wrote the classic One Dimensional Man, which influenced the 1960s counterculture and thinkers such as Angela Davis; while in a tragic coda, Adorno died from a heart attack following confrontations with student radicals in Berlin.
By taking popular culture seriously as an object of study—whether it was film, music, ideas, or consumerism—the Frankfurt School elaborated upon the nature and crisis of our mass-produced, mechanised society. Grand Hotel Abyss shows how much these ideas still tell us about our age of social media and runaway consumption.
“Marvellously entertaining, exciting and informative.”
—John Banville, Guardian (“Best Books of 2016”)
“An engaging and accessible history of the lives and main ideas of the leading thinkers of the Frankfurt School.”
—New York Review of Books
“This seemingly daunting book turned out to be an exhilarating page-turner … Grand Hotel Abyss is an outstanding critical introduction to some of the most fertile, and still relevant, thinkers of the 20th century.”
—Michael Dirda, Washington Post
“Stuart Jeffries has produced a compelling and politically pressing group portrait of the philosophers associated with the Frankfurt School. Their thinking has never seemed less forbidding and more inspiring.”
—Matthew Beaumont, author of Nightwalking
“Stuart Jeffries’s intelligent, accessible new book reminds us of the value of critical thinking.”
—Globe and Mail
“A fractious Europe, a failing currency, a challenged economy, populist parties on the rise, a divided left, migration from the east, an atmosphere of fear combined with social and sexual liberalism. The parallels between Britain today and Germany in the 1920s may well make this a compelling moment to revisit those postwar German thinkers who gathered in what was known as the Frankfurt school for social research—something akin to a Marxist thinktank, though one whose policy papers and brilliant books fed future generations as much or more than their own … Little wonder, given the history of the 20th century, that the Frankfurt school gave us intellectual pessimism and negative dialectics. Jeffries’s biography is proof that such a legacy can be invigorating.”
—Lisa Appignanesi, Observer
“There is much to provoke interest and thought, even entertain, in Jeffries’ informative account of a group of highly intelligent observers and analysts of the imprisonment of humanity, both socially and individually by the corrosive system under which it suffers.”
“Attempts something rather daring … An easily accessible, funny history of one of the more formidable intellectual movements of the twentieth century … an easy, witty, pacy read.”
—Owen Hatherley, Guardian
“Jeffries moves swiftly across the decades, retracing the jagged paths from the official founding of the Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt in June 1924, through its years in exile in New York in the ’30s and Los Angeles in the ’40s and its hasty return to Frankfurt in the early postwar years, up to the work of Horkheimer and Adorno’s prized protégé Jürgen Habermas and the Institute’s legacy today.”
−Noah Isenberg, Bookforum
“Throughout the book, Jeffries demonstrates that he is comfortable and conversant with the often thorny philosophical ideas of his subjects. A rich, intellectually meaty history.”
“An impressive work of popular intellectual history.”
—Open Letters Monthly
“Intriguing and provocative … Jeffries has done a great service in producing such a readable, wry and detailed introduction.”
—Stuart Kelly, The Scotsman
“[Gives] a step by step insight into what they thought … A lot of that stuff they wrote about still applies.”
—Jason Williamson (Sleaford Mods), Guardian
“Equally sympathetic and critical, this book is sure to gain an enthusiastic reception from academics, armchair philosophers, and fellow travelers.”
“A towering work of staggering scholarship.”
“A valuable introduction to the lives and ideas of an influential group of twentieth century philosophers. I recommend it to anyone who wants to understand why much of what passed for radical thought in academia in the late twentieth century was so obscure and depressing.”
—Ian Angus, Climate & Capitalism
“Humanises some of the most austere, (philosophically) negative, and intellectually intimidating thinkers of the past century … Jeffries draws out the intense and evolving relationship between these idiosyncratic theorists and their work, and eloquently illuminates the extent to which crude contingency shaped their philosophies and output. Jeffries succeeds in making this a truly personal, truly human illumination, be it presenting Marcuse’s letters addressing Adorno ‘dear Teddy,’ or Adorno signing off his missives to his parents affectionately, with ‘heartiest kisses from your Hippo King.’”
—Neal Harris,Marx & Philosophy Review of Books
At this point one has to make two decisions about this book: How well is it written, and how important is Mr. Jeffries book for understanding the Frankfurt School, the Critical Method, and their importance to our current and (possibly) future problems. It is also difficult to disconnect the two questions, as the importance of the Frankfurt School prejudges the importance of the book about its evolution.
Generally, Mr. Jeffries does quite well – his writing is fluid, coherent, interesting, and learned, yet he mostly (but not quite) manages to impart his knowledge to a layman like me. Unfortunately, the objective value of this book seems to me rather low. To the innocent bystander the Frankfurt School seems to have been run by a bunch of spoiled kids that refused to consider any alternative interpretation of history. Their disenchantment with the vanishing proletariat appears to be at least paternalistic, as the statement that people have been fooled by capitalism to feel themselves free while in reality they are slaves of the system. ONLY the Frankfurt School luminaries have been intelligent, perceptive, and clairvoyant enough to see through this subterfuge. The second objection pertains to the method itself. They were trying to established something equivalent to the unified field theory in physics, i.e. a set of precepts that will explain EVERYTHING (in Marxist terms, obviously). No wonder they have failed. Their current position in the academic world owes more to the beliefs of the post-modern faculty than to their intrinsic contribution as philosophers.
The reader should be wary of some of the book’s jacket blurbs and other reviews. They speak of the book as “an exhilarating page-turner,” and as “funny.” Jeffries has a great sense of the ironic and a full appreciation of the contradictions inherent in the Frankfurt School ‘project’, but this is not a leg-slapping beach book. This is serious and significant (but not ponderous or obscurantist) intellectual history. Similarly, his subtitle, “The Lives of the Frankfurt School” is spot-on but potentially misleading. It does indeed trace the various incarnations of the School and the writings of its members and it does provide trenchant anecdotes about the members’ personal lives, but this is not a Kitty Kelly exposé and it does not focus on the members’ lives to the exclusion of their work. I would say that it offers the perfect balance; every book on philosophy needs to balance out the personal experiences of a thinker with that individual’s thought. It is important to know that Hume was a genial and decent fellow who gave up professional opportunities in order to be faithful to his beliefs, just as it is important to know that Kant (like Jane Austen, e.g.) never travelled to a significant degree and whose favorite music (despite the Critique of Judgment’s vast influence on aesthetic theory) consisted of Prussian marches.
The best feature of this book is the author’s balanced viewpoint. It is often said that great biography requires personal sympathy on the part of the author (though Robert Caro stands as a rather prominent exception), but that sympathy must be balanced with objectivity. Jeffries sees all of the foibles of the Frankfurt School, commenting on Benjamin in the following way:
“If the Frankfurt School was the last hurrah of German romanticism, then Benjamin was its emblem, revealing the group in all its contradictions—Marxists without party, socialists dependent on capitalist money, beneficiaries of a society they sniffily disdained and without which they would have had nothing to write about” (p. 167).
At the same time he concludes with a discussion of contemporary capitalism, saying that in “such a customized culture, one that abolishes serendipity, makes a mockery of dignity and turns human liberation into a terrifying prospect, the best writings of the Frankfurt School still have much to teach us—not least about the impossibility and the necessity of thinking differently” (p. 392). While Jeffries focuses on large, global corporations, I think of a phenomenon closer to home. As I write this, reports are circulating about the University of Virginia’s desire to cut their library’s shelf space by 40-70%. If one seeks an example of an assault on serendipity, one need look no farther than what the contemporary university is doing to itself.
My only reservation concerning the book is the fact that it has no illustrations, except for a wonderful picture of Adorno on the book’s spine, extending his wrist and offering a ‘thumb’s down’.