Flow: The Psychology of Happiness (英語) ペーパーバック – 2002/8/1
Kindle 端末は必要ありません。無料 Kindle アプリのいずれかをダウンロードすると、スマートフォン、タブレットPCで Kindle 本をお読みいただけます。
What really makes people glad to be alive? What are the inner experiences that make life worthwhile?
For more than two decades Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi studied those states in which people report feelings of concentration and deep enjoyment. His studies revealed that what makes experience genuinely satisfying is 'flow' - a state of concentration so focused that it amounts to complete absorption in an activity and results in the achievement of a perfect state of happiness. Flow has become the classic work on happiness and a major contribution to contemporary psychology. It examines such timeless issues as the challenge of lifelong learning; family relationships; art, sport and sex as 'flow'; the pain of loneliness; optimal use of free time; and how to make our lives meaningful.
"[He] has done more than anyone else to study this state of effortless attending" (Daniel Kahneman, author of Thinking, Fast and Slow)
"Elegantly written...it is more relevant than ever" (The Times)
"Mr Csikszentmihalyi illuminates the accuracy of what philosophers have been saying for centuries: that the way to happiness lies not in mindless hedonism but in mindful challenge" (The New York Times)
2件中1 - 2件目のレビューを表示
１. 完成の可能性があること、2. 集中できること、3. 目標があること、4. すぐ結果が出ること、5. 日常の心配事を忘れることができること、6. 自由裁量の余地があること、7. 自己が消える（しかし逆説的に、フローの後では確乎とした自己の存在を感じる）こと、そして8. 時間感覚が変わること（一瞬が長い時間に思えたり、長時間が一瞬に思えたりすること）などだ。
＜ Lost in Antarctica or confined to a prison cell, some individuals succeed in transforming their harrowing conditions into a manageable and even enjoyable struggle. They survived by finding ways to turn the bleak objective conditions into subjectively controllable experience. ＞
＜ Ironically, jobs are easier to enjoy than free time, because like flow activities they have built-in goals, feedback, rules, and challenges, all of which encourage one to become involved in one’s work, to concentrate and lose oneself in it. ＞
The book focuses on ways that we can encourage flow in our lives, and also talks about the perils of overreliance on a particular flow activity - ie., the chess prodigy who is not competent in social gatherings, or the artist who only enjoys their life when painting but not outside of that activity. It is about trying to see the potential for flow in our daily lives, using it and harnessing it to achieve worthwhile goals, and encouraging flow in a multitude of mundane and transcendental activities. This book made a lot of sense to me - it explained the sense of control as being perhaps more important than conventional notions of 'happiness' and that satisfaction depends on feeling that one has some control over their circumstances and actions. This is true even in the most controlled of circumstances, i.e., individuals who were political prisoners was given as one example.
I think the lessons and principles in this book were very useful and inspiring - it doesn't give a specific, step-by-step plan for making your life flow, but it does provide a useful background and guideline on ways to give life more meaning.
We're told that "psychic entropy" (or lack of control over conciseness, or simply random thoughts), is the thing that prevents happiness. Flow, on the other hand, is "optimal experience", the reverse of psychic entropy. Actually, this scale from psychic entropy to flow *is* the measure of happiness. Then, the book gives some conditions for achieving flow -- basically finding tasks that are challenging enough, but not too much, together with unambiguous and fast feedback (I found that part somewhat vague). And there's a lot of examples of flow experiences. Everything can become flow, if challenges are sought and overcome. Every chapter fits into a solid book structure.
But it's not clear the structure makes sense. Yes, being engaged in activity at proper challenge level can be very rewarding. Is it an answer for everything? Is unhappiness indeed the same as psychic entropy? Maybe if one cannot concentrate on anything at all, yes, but hardly in all cases. Is suppressing distressing thoughts by finding a random engaging experience the best approach? No matter what that experience is? True, the book does mention that some flow experiences are not necessary good, but then goes on giving a lot of examples of flow, regardless of their value. If I'm constantly bothered by a bunch of unresolved problems, would it be wise to go and find some flow experience, to suppress the thoughts about these problems? Maybe find flow in washing dishes? Even if I manage to get very very engaged in that, will I feel a slightest bit better afterwards?
The book was originally published in 1990, and it shows. I found no mention of Daniel Kahneman' concept of experiencing self and remembering self, which means that no matter how pleasurable flow might be in the moment, it is only one part of the story (see "Thinking, Fast and Slow"). There's no mention of Daniel Gilbert, who claims that people mostly stay at their baseline happiness level, and so expending great effort to become happier is probably a mistake (see "Stumbling on Happiness"). Instead, we find some favorable mentions of Mr. Freud, for the first time in all the books I read.
Flow is probably an important part of good life experience, and this book is important in giving examples of flow. But equating flow with happiness is very controversial, and too much of the book is based on that equality.
That said, I really liked the book as it is an odd book cos' it will make the reader feel uncomfortable but will still draw the reader to read thru it as it gets the wheels spinning.