- 本カテゴリの商品を2500円以上購入で買取金額500円UPキャンペーン対象商品です。商品出荷時に買取サービスでご利用いただけるクーポンをメールにてご案内させていただきます。 詳細はこちら (細則もこちらからご覧いただけます)
English Verb Classes and Alternations: A Preliminary Investigation (英語) ペーパーバック – 1993/9
Kindle 端末は必要ありません。無料 Kindle アプリのいずれかをダウンロードすると、スマートフォン、タブレットPCで Kindle 本をお読みいただけます。
In this rich reference work, Beth Levin classifies over 3,000 English verbs according to shared meaning and behavior. Levin starts with the hypothesis that a verb's meaning influences its syntactic behavior and develops it into a powerful tool for studying the English verb lexicon. She shows how identifying verbs with similar syntactic behavior provides an effective means of distinguishing semantically coherent verb classes, and isolates these classes by examining verb behavior with respect to a wide range of syntactic alternations that reflect verb meaning. The first part of the book sets out alternate ways in which verbs can express their arguments. The second presents classes of verbs that share a kernel of meaning and explores in detail the behavior of each class, drawing on the alternations in the first part. Levin's discussion of each class and alternation includes lists of relevant verbs, illustrative examples, comments on noteworthy properties, and bibliographic references. The result is an original, systematic picture of the organization of the verb inventory. Easy to use, "English Verb Classes and Alternations" sets the stage for further explorations of the interface between lexical semantics and syntax. It will prove indispensable for theoretical and computational linguists, psycholinguists, cognitive scientists, lexicographers, and teachers of English as a second language. Beth Levin is associate professor of linguistics at Northwestern University.
this book. A few key terms are not adequately explained for the lay reader, but core principles
and the examples of reconfiguration of verbs into groupings help considerably in understanding
how our language use works.
This book is exceedingly useful for building things on a computer... at least I have found it so.
So in my humble opinion, this book ranks with and beyond many of the what are thought of as the great works of linguistics, like, you know, Cours, Syntactic Structures, Bloomfield's and Sapir's Language, Jakobson's Kindersprache, and Humboldt's writings, which I regard very highly. And yes, I have read them all, too many times in some cases. The reason I rate this work so highly is that it consists of substantive generalizations, which by their nature must stand the test of time. Nor are they trivial generalizations.
That doesn't mean it's excessively difficult to understand what the generalizations are once you get into it. I would say that anyone who knows what a transitive verb is and who knows the difference between verbal tense and aspect would be able to follow this text if they were motivated. And if you are into text processing of any sort on a computer, like data mining or translation memory or full text retrieval, there's very good reason to be motivated to use this book.
Still there's a reason why nobody made this classification before Levin. You have to know what to look for. You have to resist the temptation to go into your head and start confusing the map with the territory. I regard this as a major problem for theoretical linguists, not only in modern times, but also historically.
The book proves that there is a relationship between the meaning of a verb and the syntactic structures that it can enter into. At the time the book was written, this was a much debated topic in the linguistics world, and I suspect that it is primarily the influence of this book which has largely laid that debate to rest. For example, one class she distinguishes (to choose completely at random) is verbs of substance emission. You can say both:
Heat radiates from the sun.
The sun radiates heat.
However, you cannot say:
The boy eats from the plate.
The plate eats the boy.
In the first half of the book, Levin distinguishes perhaps 70 syntactic alternations like this organized into 8 supercategories. In the second half, she inverts the classification. She distinguishes perhaps 150 semantic verb classes and then lists the syntactic alternations that characterize them.
For example, the Separate Verbs in English are: decouple, differentiate, disconnect, disentangle, etc. And these can undergo the transitive and intransitive Simple Reciprocal Alternations (which she defines in the first section), the Causative/Inchoative Alternation (also defined in section I) and so on.
And that's the essence of it. It is a reference work which covers about 3000 verbs in common English usage.