The Creative Economy: How People Make Money From Ideas (英語) ペーパーバック – 2005/5/31
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But how do you turn creativity into money – cash, capital and profit? It is not just having a bright idea that counts – it's what you do with it.
John Howkins, a leading expert on creative business, shows us what creativity really is, gives the hard data on its global turnover ($2.2 trillion a year) and outlines the key rules for success.
The rules include:
- Invent yourself. Be unique
- Own your ideas. Understand copyright and patents
- Know when to work alone, and when in a group
- Learn endlessly. Borrow, reinvent and recycle
- Exploit fame and celebrity
- Know when to break the rules
Whether in film or fashion, software or shoes, by focusing on our individual talents we can all make creativity pay.
John Howkins is Deputy Chairman of the British Screen Advisory Council and has worked as a consultant for Time Warner, ABC, IBM and many other companies and institutions. His previous publications include UNDERSTANDING TELEVISION, MASS COMMUNICATIONS IN CHINA and NEW TECHNOLOGIES, NEW POLICIES.
"The Creative Economy" was written in 2001 (one year prior to "The Creative Class") and it goes much more in depth in his analysis. John Hawkins provides data sector by sector with an explanation of the trends at work in each of them. Those who liked but hesitated while reading "The Creative Class" must absolutely "The Economic Class": they will find proofs of what is being analysed, they will find a method to ponder or to update the statistics quite easily, in brief it is a real book of economics which deals seriously with what really is innovation and how to foster it (while Florida's book merely provides slogans - good slogans, I admit, but still slogans and self-serving advertisement for his own Public Relation services).
In a section called “The Ideas Business”, John Hawkins explains his goal to “quantifies that ‘steely determination’ in the heartland of the creativity economy. It describes the 15 industries where creativity is the most important raw resource and the most valuable economic product.” But he does not stop here, he then gives the criteria that will allow him to make reliable statistics in order to measure the new phenomenon: “The criterion for inclusion here is whether the industry meets the definition of the creative economy given in Chapter 1: financial transactions in creative products, or CE = CP x T. The criterion of a creative product is a good or service that results from creativity and has economic value. The criterion of a transaction is that an exchange takes place with an economic value. All creative products qualify for one of the main forms of intellectual property (patents, copyrights, designs and trade marks) even if some accrue more value as a physical object (as do art and fashion).”
What really enchants me in "The Creative Economy" is its openness to different ways of thinking. John Hawkins destroys the borders between art and science in order to track innovation, creation, novelty. He truly brings something refreshing into the dominant economical thought. Listen to his way of "analysing the results of a US census:
"Over two million Americans described themselves as an ‘artist’ in 2000, an increase of 70,000 over the previous year, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. According to Americans for the Arts, there were 2.9 million people, 2.9 per cent of total employment, working for 548,000 organisations (4.3 per cent of US businesses). There were 30 per cent more writers and 50 per cent more musicians compared with 1970. Consumer expenditure on admissions to the performing arts increased at an average of 8 per cent a year through the 1990s. On the supply side, the American Patent Office issued 151,079 patents for inventions, 13,395 for designs and 816 for plants, a total (with 195 re-issues) of 143,396 (2005). It also registered 104,000 trademarks."
Those who read the book will have invest their time into a fruitful exercise!
Conversely, Howkin's great strength is his journalistic clarity and ability to sustain interest throughout the book without the usual impediment of overt citation disease plaguing other more pretentious and scholarly treatments. This book is ideal reading material for politicians, schoolteachers and captains of industry alike, in helping us to see the industrial world in a different way. In doing this, Howkins must stand equal to other leading popular theorists like Richard Florida, and Charles Landry.
For anyone who is involved in commercial and artistic processes which require IP protection (and obviously this becomes an obligation for those hoping to make a living from such activities) this book provides an essential wake-up call. As Howkins sums it all up on his final page: "a society that stifles or misuses its creative resources, and signs up to the wrong property contract, cannot prosper. But if we understand and manage this new creative economy, individuals will profit and society will be rewarded."
It is hard to disagree with this simple but powerful conclusion.