- ハードカバー: 1728ページ
- 出版社: Oxford University Press; 11th Revised版 (2006/6/22)
- 言語: 英語
- ISBN-10: 0199296340
- ISBN-13: 978-0199296347
- 発売日： 2006/6/22
- 商品パッケージの寸法: 15.6 x 6.3 x 23.4 cm
- おすすめ度： 2件のカスタマーレビュー
- Amazon 売れ筋ランキング: 洋書 - 621,281位 (洋書の売れ筋ランキングを見る)
Concise Oxford English Dictionary (英語) ハードカバー – 2006/6/22
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Based on the authority of the Oxford English Corpus and the ongoing research of Oxford Dictionaries, this revised edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th edition contains over 240,000 words, phrases, and definitions, and provides the most authoritative description of the English language. It offers rich vocabulary coverage, with full treatment of World English, rare, historical, and archaic terms, as well as scientific and technical vocabulary. This revised edition includes hundreds of new and up-to-date words, such as sudoku, agroterrorism, and bird flu, with a special focus on words and phrases used in business English eg. helicopter view, knowledge economy, and vulture fund. This edition retains such popular features as Word Histories, the Guide to Good English, and appendices on countries of the world, alphabets, and more. New to this edition is a compelling 'English Uncovered' supplement, which presents new findings from the Oxford English Corpus. Find out the most common words in our language, discover which words have the most meanings, and learn about the working of words beneath the surface. For UK only, there is a special promotion which will allow users to use a new SMS service to receive dictionary definitions direct to their mobile phone*. *Terms and conditions apply
A dictionary may not contain narratives and poems, but the best ones, like this one, give you the tools. (David Malcolm, Times Literary Supplement)
This is the dictionary par excellence for the general reader. (David Malcolm, Times Literary Supplement)
It answers a lot of questions; it is easy to use; it does not take up too much space on a crowded desk. (David Malcolm, TLS) --このテキストは、絶版本またはこのタイトルには設定されていない版型に関連付けられています。
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If you are willing to carry only a compact single volume dictionary, this dictionary is certainly a good choice. This edition has been revised in 2008. The paper in thin, but seems to be capable of resisting tear and wear. The only feature missing is a thumb index.
Each succeeding edition brings to it changes in format. The current 11th 2008 revised edition has all supplementary material relocated from the back end to the "Centre Section" after the letter "L". It is not the first dictionary to do this, but its 24-page "Centre Section" makes fascinating reading.
1. English Uncovered. Benefits of data collected by Oxford are divulged. The list of 100 commonest words revealed are "the" #1, "I" #10, to "us" #100. Lists of commonest nouns, verbs and adjectives are included. Interesting trivia includes the words with most meanings as "set" (156), "stand" (104) and "fall" (101). Subtle shifts in spelling include "just deserts" to "just desserts" (58% actual usage); buck naked 53% to butt naked 47%; and "strait-laced" being overwhelmed by 66% actual use of "straight-laced". "Miniscule" changes are overtaking correct forms like "Minuscule".
2. Fascinating words. Absquatulate, adscititious, afreet start this 4 page list. "callipygian" having shapely buttocks, "ecdysiast" strip tease performer, "vexillology" study of flags, "toxophilite" archery student, join words like ylem, sudd, flews, stiction, plew and yes, floccinaucinihilipilification and pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis. I am fascinated.
3. Collective nouns. The usual "pride" of lions, "fling" of dunlins, "murmuration" of starlings, "school" of whales, is usefully retained, although it could be more exhaustive.
4. Imitative Words. 2 pages of onomatopoeias. I have not come across such a list in an Oxford. Vroom, whoosh, zoom.
5. Foreign Words and Phrases. This is an extremely useful list of frequently encountered foreign terms. The absence of a connected pronouncing key is a most regrettable omission, as this is precisely where a pronouncing key would be most appreciated. Nothing fancy, and nobody would argue the inclusion of: a cappella, alfresco, au fait, je ne sais quoi, ménage a trios, schadenfreude, verboten and zeitgeist. Delightful section.
6. Guide to Good English. Same old, same old.
There are more "Usage" bubbles in this edition. After "discreet", a tinted bubble explains the difference with "discrete". It is "Fowler's Modern English Usage" appended to the apposite words. Naturally, there are more words and material with every new edition. I suspect the similar number of pages as the preceding edition was achieved by reducing the font size of the print. For the huge number of entries, there would be no examples of usage in sentences, nor any illustrations. The International Phonetic Transcription is used and is consistent with its increasing popularity over the Merriam Webster pronouncing key.
Etymology is the best I have seen. Curiously, "Viagra", reputed to be a portmanteau of "virility" and "Niagra" (fluids emanating like Niagra Falls is hopeful optimism) in the 10th 2002 edition, reverted to "unknown origin" in the 11th 2008 edition. The commonly encountered "Cialis" (CIncinnati/MinneApoLIS) is not yet recognised by Oxford.
This dictionary sounds almost too good to be true. Bear with me as I explore possible shortcomings.
The Concise Oxford is not for students of English. It is for those who are way, way, way past the early learning stage. This sterling reference work is quite unsatisfactory as a learning tool. It is more of an aide-memoire and for quick reference when wandering into unfamiliar disciplines. The Paperback Oxford or the Oxford Advanced Learner's would better serve students. Collins, Cambridge, Longman, Chambers, MacMillan and other competitors publish dictionaries with the specific aim of educating students, replete with examples of usage, mnemonics, pictures, and so on. Some throw in a thesaurus.
My 2002 Concise Oxford has these supplementary materials, now deleted from this 2008 edition:
1. Countries of the World, capital cities, currencies, etc,
2. Alphabets (Arabic, Hebrew, Greek, Russian),
3. Accents and diacritical marks,
4. Phonetic Alphabet: Alpha, Bravo, Charlie to Zulu,
5. Weights and measures, British and American and metric conversions,
6. Metric prefixes, like nano-, pico-, femto-, atto-,
7. SI units
8. Proofreading marks,
9. List of two letter words, like "mu", "re" (musical note), "ye",
10. Words with Q not followed by U, like tariqa, qiviut,
11. SMS abbreviations, emoticons.
Some dictionaries include a map of the world, Nobel Prize winners, Famous People, Common Proverbs; but this may be going over the top. Really, where else can you realistically expect to find such handy nuggets of critical information at your fingertips other than your desktop dictionary. A small investment of 20 to 30 additional pages to the Concise Oxford will fix these omissions found in various previous editions.
Various previous editions of the Oxford had different combinations of these useful Dictionary-related appendices:
1. The Periodic Table, chemical symbols with atomic numbers and weights, (useful for following "Breaking Bad" TV series),
2. Books of the Bible,
3. Geologic Table, placing words like "Jurassic", "Silurian" in context,
4. Common Geometric formulas,
5. Musical notations, dynamics, indicators and Orchestral layout,
6. States of the United States, capital, informal name (North Dakota, Bismarck, Peace Garden), and similarly for Canada, South Africa, Australia, even India,
7. Braille, Morse Code, Manual alphabet for the hearing impaired,
8. Presidents of the United States of America (the one after this publication is Obama :), and the President after Obama might still make it to the next edition), Kings and Queens of England and the UK, Prime Ministers of important countries
9. The Solar System, principal moons; Taxonomy,
10. Zodiac Signs, Chinese Zodiac (2010 is the year of the Tiger), Wedding Anniversaries, birthstones.
A list of Shakespeare's works, Greek and Roman deities, and a tabulation of military ranks would be welcome.
Compared to 1700 pages, the addition of principal appendices would take up another 20 to 30 pages, tops. Some words make more sense in the context of lists, charts, tables and diagrams, yet we would still be nowhere inching towards an encyclopaedia.
This Concise Oxford is printed in UK. The paper looks cheap compared to older editions with sturdier paper. Yet my yellow marker highlightings cannot be seen from the reverse pages. The binding gets shoddier with each edition. If it remains on the desktop, it will come to little harm. It has a Bargain edition feel to it, and it does not inspire confidence that it will last a lifetime - until the next edition perhaps. Bring it around, as in a school bag, and its gradual destruction is assured. Far cheaper dictionaries from other publishers feel more solid, with paper much more pleasing to touch.
If "Concise" led to the notion that this dictionary is small, check the dimensions, as it is larger than expected. Very few books are two and a half inches thick. I would like to see the inclusion of more supplementary material so it will be the only reference book on my cluttered desktop.
In spite of perceived shortcomings, the Concise Oxford is the one I want to occupy that precious real estate on my desktop.
But it simply didn't have in it enough of the words I looked up, so I sent it to a friend of mine in Spain who's learning English, and bought the Concise.
I must say at once that it was an immense improvement; in the three months I've had it, there's only been one word I've looked for that wasn't in it ("testudinal", which is found in William Manchester's biography of Winston Churchill: I think it means "relating to tortoises"). I don't know if you can count FUBAR, which isn't listed (although SNAFU is).
It's also strong on modern technical terms (such as "blog") and slang expressions (such as "go postal"). And whatever one's view of political correctness, one needs to be aware of it to be absolutely certain of avoiding offence. Here again I found the Concise exemplary.
However, I am not so ecstatic about some of the other features.
One is the treatment of pronunciation. I accept that it's better to use the IPA than some half-baked phonetic equivalent, and I'm gradually getting used to it. But "the principle followed is that pronunciations are only given where they are likely to cause problems for the native speaker of English". So if you're not a native speaker — or you're a child who hasn't yet attained an adult vocabulary — then you're screwed; you'd be better off with the Cambridge. Further, although US spellings are provided, US pronunciations are not, only RP ones; thus no cognizance is taken (for instance) of the difference between UK ad-'dress and US 'ad-dress. And although two pronunciations of "laboratory" are given, there's no indication of which is which.
I found the Concise unhelpful on some aspects of usage. When did "ætiology" become "aetiology", and when did "B.B.C." become "BBC"?
More alarming is a syntactic sloppiness that pervades the whole thing. Of course every dictionary must strike a balance between prescriptivism and descriptivism*, and by and large the Concise does a good job (as in the entry for "decimate", for example). The policy on possessives is explicitly stated in the usage note for "they": 'It is now widely held that the traditional use of "he" to refer to a person of either sex is outdated and sexist; the alternative, "he or she", can be clumsy. It is now generally acceptable, therefore, to use "they" (with its counterparts "them", "their" and "themselves" instead. [...]'. But this means that "a pupil should leave their coat in the lobby" is acceptable, although it looks very odd to me. I guess I'm just old-fashioned.
"Façade" is presented without the cedilla, even as an alternative spelling, which looks to me outright illiterate.
Among other oddities are the use of "which" instead of "that" in restrictive clauses, and (on the last page) "hyphened" instead "hyphenated".
Some of the entries seem to me slightly off-centre, too, e.g. "legless" is defined as "extremely drunk", which is true as far as it goes. But specifically it means "too drunk to stand"; if you can still stand, you aren't legless, however drunk you are. "Rabbit" as a Cockney term is said to come from "rabbit and pork" = "talk", but as a Londoner I've always understood it to be from "rabbit's paw" = "jaw".
But by and large I'm happy with the Concise.
*In this connection, it's perhaps a sign of the times that the spelling "miniscule" has now overtaken "minuscule" (p.1700).
On the subject of the abbreviations and digraphs, I availed myself of the invitation to Ask Oxford, and received from a lady the following kind reply (in part):
"I have checked all editions of the Concise Oxford Dictionary back to 1911, and was interested to find that this publication has never used the ae and oe digraphs, though they were and still are to be found in the full Oxford English Dictionary. Of course they were never available on standard typewriter keyboards, and rare on early computers, and I suspect that this hastened their decline. In British English there has been a strong trend towards simplification in the past twenty years, and any unnecessary complication is out of favour; to use digraphs would not be considered incorrect, but fussy.
"The same process has affected punctuation, which is now lighter. I see that the initialism 'B.B.C.' appeared thus in the sixth edition of the Concise (1976) but as 'BBC' in the seventh (1982): both were edited by J.B. Sykes."
After a bit more time, I have become somewhat disillusioned: the Concise won't get you through the Saint books or even James Bond (What IS a racing change? Is it the same thing as double-declutching?); and for Simon Raven it's derisory.
Concise OED (11th ed., rev.):
-- 1. a typical example, pattern, or model of something.
-- 2. a world view underlying the theories and methodology of a scientific subject.
-- 3. [Linguistics] a set of items that form mutually exclusive choices in particular syntactic roles. Often contrasted with Syntagm.
-- 4. [Grammar] a table of all the inflected forms of a word.
Full OED (2nd ed.):
-- 1.a. a pattern, exemplar, example.
---- b. attrib. as 'paradigm case', a case or instance to be regarded as representative or typical.
-- 2. Rhet. (In L. form) See quot. Obs.
-- 3.a. An example or pattern of the inflexion of a noun, verb, or other inflected part of speech.
---- b. transf. and fig.
In the full OED, each definition is followed by examples that go back even as far as 1483. Only in the last case, 3b, do we find anything approaching definition 2 of the Concise OED (the 'world view' definition). It is in quotes referring to Wittgenstein, Chomsky, Kuhn, etc. They are fascinating, but if you were looking the word up, because you were trying to read something else, instead of a dictionary, then the full OED makes you work too hard the extract the word's most common usage.