Choices, Values, and Frames ペーパーバック – 2000/9/25
Kindle 端末は必要ありません。無料 Kindle アプリのいずれかをダウンロードすると、スマートフォン、タブレットPCで Kindle 本をお読みいただけます。
This book presents the definitive exposition of 'prospect theory', a compelling alternative to the classical utility theory of choice. Building on the 1982 volume, Judgement Under Uncertainty, this book brings together seminal papers on prospect theory from economists, decision theorists, and psychologists, including the work of the late Amos Tversky, whose contributions are collected here for the first time. While remaining within a rational choice framework, prospect theory delivers more accurate, empirically verified predictions in key test cases, as well as helping to explain many complex, real-world puzzles. In this volume, it is brought to bear on phenomena as diverse as the principles of legal compensation, the equity premium puzzle in financial markets, and the number of hours that New York cab drivers choose to drive on rainy days. Theoretically elegant and empirically robust, this volume shows how prospect theory has matured into a new science of decision making.
Daniel Kahneman is co-winner of the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The award was bestowed in recognition of the influential research conducted by Kahneman and his long-time collaborator, the late Amos Tversky, on the psychology of human judgment and decision-making. According to a recent article published in the journal Psychological Science, the research program initiated by Kahneman and Tversky is considered psychologys "leading intellectual export to the wider academic world." Current scholarship and research in medicine, law, public policy, international relations, and economics has been profoundly shaped by their insights into human rationality.
Regarding the field of risk management (not the wll street kind, but just regular risk decision making in business) this book is of inestimable value. I have often notices certain biases towards risk aversion or risk taking when business decisions are beign made. Much seemed to be due to the context. This work shows exactly why and how decision bias arises. This is the foundation for the creation of a useful risk decision analytical framework.
The paper of interest to me relate to why people will choose to take or avoid risks that, according to utility theory, are the wrong decisions. For example, why pepole buy insurance even when it is a better financial choice to be uninsured. These works explain why and under what circumstances one's biases override logic. Why this is not a common text on the desk of every risk manager, I will never know.
In this one volume, there is enough information to design an utterly new field of risk management and to solve most every problem one can face. This has become the one reference material that I considre indespensible. throw out the CPCU and ARM texts that you never use and can't bear to read ever again. Chuck them and place this volume in their place and you will be far, far better off.
The text is somewhat dense at parts, being aimed at economists and psychologists with some mathematical familiarity. However, the portions of the book that require much mathematics can safely be bypassed without losing much of the substance of the text. This text is the most credible presentation of an alternative theory to the rational actor theory usually assumed in economics. For example, some of the articles help explain the magnitude of the equity return premium, or help show how people make choices differently in similar situations based simply on the way the situation is presented.
I would highly recommend this book to anyone interested in decision making theory, especially as it relates to consumer behavior. It is a brilliant volume that includes the most important articles by the leading mind in the field.
It doesn't matter what X is, this is the book you should read.
It is really long, and it is some of the hardest reading you will ever do, but it is basically a book of "how people make decisions, good, bad and indifferent" if you have this book, a working history of a person, and the person doesn't have dementia, you can probably figure them out with this book.
Once you know how people think, and make their decisions you don't need any other book because you could just make them do what you want and have it be their idea.
"So, Brandon if you have this power why don't you do this all the time?"
Glad you asked... Turns out getting accurate histories of people is really hard. Way harder than say just making my own cup of hot cocoa.
Prospect theory is thoroughly and beautifully discussed in this book and this is due to some degree by the presence of articles written by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, its originators. As outlined by these two researchers, prospect theory asserts that individuals tend to be sensitive to changes in values rather than absolute values and have diminishing marginal sensitivity to changes. This is reflected in the shape of their utility functions: qualitatively speaking they are steepest in regions where the marginal sensitivity to change is greatest and then they flatten out in directions where the changes in wealth increase. As a consequence, individuals prefer a small gain that is certain to a larger gain that is uncertain. Conversely, they prefer the possibility of a larger gain than the certainty of a small loss.
To motivate the content of the book, Kahneman writes an excellent preface, giving an overview of what to expect in the book and thus allowing readers to assign their own weights to which particular articles they find of interest. Some readers may want to read the entire book, but it seems likely that only selected articles will be chosen for careful study, based of course on the background of the reader. However, the first article in the book, which was published by Kahneman and Tversky in 1983, should probably be read by everyone interested in prospect theory and its foundations. The second article is a more quantitative formulation of what was said in the first, and contains an in-depth critique of expected utility theory. The content of this article should be helpful to those readers who work in a risk management environment and need to construct realistic models of choice under risk.
If the development of these models is guided by prospect theory, the analyst will arrive at a final product that could with fairness be classified as "microeconomic." The challenge in using prospect theory is to conglomerate the individual choices so that a risk manager can speak intelligently of the risk of a portfolio that is based on these individual choices. Some insight that could guide this development can be found in Part Five of the book, which covers applications of prospect theory. One particular article that stands out in this regard is the one by S. Benartzi and R. H. Thaler on the equity premium puzzle. This article attempts to understand, in the context of prospect theory, why fixed income securities have underperformed relative to stocks for the last nine decades, from about a 7% annual real return on stocks to a 1% return on treasury bills. The author's simulations indicate that the loss aversion aspect of prospect theory gives a better explanation to the equity premium puzzle than the traditional approaches based on expected maximum utility.
Still another interesting article in Part Five is the one on the `money illusion' written by E. Shafir, P. Diamond, and A. Tversky, and which first appeared in publication in 1997. The term `money illusion' is used to refer to the tendency of some individuals to think in terms of nominal values instead of real monetary ones. It is thus at odds to the picture offered by classical economics with its assumption of perfect rationality. The authors point to studies in cognitive psychology that indicate that some individuals form alternative representations of identical situations, and that these lead therefore to different responses. Examples of this are given, leading the authors to assert that the money illusion can be interpreted as a bias in assessing the real value of an economic transaction. This bias is induced by a nominal evaluation and its magnitude is determined by the real salience between the nominal and real representations, and the sophistication of the decision maker. The reviewer has used these types of considerations in modeling home equity markets.