- 本カテゴリの商品を2500円以上購入で買取金額500円UPキャンペーン対象商品です。商品出荷時に買取サービスでご利用いただけるクーポンをメールにてご案内させていただきます。 詳細はこちら (細則もこちらからご覧いただけます)
The Autism Matrix (英語) ハードカバー – 2010/7/26
Kindle 端末は必要ありません。無料 Kindle アプリのいずれかをダウンロードすると、スマートフォン、タブレットPCで Kindle 本をお読みいただけます。
Today autism has become highly visible. Once you begin to look for it, you realize it is everywhere. Why? We all know the answer or think we do: there is an autism epidemic. And if it is an epidemic, then we know what must be done: lots of money must be thrown at it, detection centers must be established and explanations sought, so that the number of new cases can be brought down and the epidemic brought under control.
But can it really be so simple? This major new book offers a very different interpretation. The authors argue that the recent rise in autism should be understood an “aftershock” of the real earthquake, which was the deinstitutionalization of mental retardation in the mid-1970s. This entailed a radical transformation not only of the institutional matrix for dealing with developmental disorders of childhood, but also of the cultural lens through which we view them. It opened up a space for viewing and treating childhood disorders as neither mental illness nor mental retardation, neither curable nor incurable, but somewhere in-between. The authors show that where deinstitutionalization went the furthest, as in Scandinavia, UK and the “blue” states of the US, autism rates are also highest. Where it was absent or delayed, as in France, autism rates are low.
Combining a historical narrative with international comparison, The Autism Matrix offers a fresh and powerful analysis of a condition that affects many parents and children today.
"The Autism Matrix fills in crucial gaps, and will greatly improve how the context of diagnosis and treatment is understood...The original research represented here is wide-ranging and invaluable"
Times Higher Education
"Gil Eyal and colleagues, five sociologists from Columbia University, have brought a fresh perspective from a different discipline to try to explain autism's expansion in prevalence and popularity...Overall I found much to admire in this detailed study."
British Medical Journal
"This is a very useful book for those interested in autism and the role of parent movements and activists, and more generally in the social factors affecting changes in the classification of diseases."
Sociology of Health and Illness
"The development of the autistic spectrum is laid bare as a cultural construct still in evolutionary process, and the elucidation of this morphing phenomenon is the crowning achievement of this book."
The Kelvingrove Review
"Autism, rare and little publicized twenty years ago, is now constantly in the news and is absorbing ever larger sums of public funding and concern. It has changed school classrooms and perhaps the very nature of childhood. This book is the best available sociological analysis of how this happened, linking recent events to those early in the twentieth century. It tells of the formidable labour of autism activists, their dreams and schisms, with generosity and insight. Institutions, the ideals of the family and its management, and child minding, all play their role. This is a reflective analysis of a pervasive event of our times, replacing clichés by new ideas."
Ian Hacking, Collège de France
"The Autism Matrix is an exemplary exercise in historically informed medical anthropology and sociology. This richly argued, engaging, and well-researched book begins with the basic question of why autism diagnoses have increased in recent years and then offers a wealth of cascading implications. The authors succeed in showing that the simplistic question of 'epidemic or not?' is unproductive in comparison to the more intellectually fruitful question of how institutional matrices identify, name, count, and treat neuropsychiatric difference."
Roy Richard Grinker, Ph.D. Professor of Anthropology, The George Washington University,and author of Unstrange Minds: Remapping the World of Autism
I experienced a deep personal connection with the book's events, having grown up in New York- well attuned to reports of abuse and neglect at the Willowbrook State School. As a 1976 college graduate with a degree in English I landed a job at a small private school for "exceptional students" in the Catskill Mountain region and was shocked to meet warehoused adults with cognitive deficits ranging from severe to so mild- that they could be confused with the staff. They probably had a myriad of diagnoses including mental retardation, autism or schizophrenia, but diagnosis seemed irrelevant since all that mattered was that they were kept alive and out of sight to avoid inconveniencing society. When I next worked as a live in "houseparent" teaching daily living skills to nine men who previously lived at the Willowbrook institution, I recognized that these were relatively high functioning men who responded well to environmental stimulation and behavior modification. The term "developmental disability" was just starting to be considered more politically correct than the term "mental retardation" which had replaced the even less acceptable terms "imbecile", "moron" and "feeble-minded". By the late 1970's I had learned a lot about developmental disabilities but all I knew about autism was what I read in Bruno Bettelheim's book "The Empty Fortress" which claimed that autism could be cured by an understanding staff who exercised extraordinary listening skills and patience.
The authors of The Autism Matrix explain how the tectonic social shifts in the 60's and 70's enabled and encouraged parents to keep their young disabled children at home. Services started to be offered in early intervention programs and public schools. The diagnosis of "autism" became increasingly prevalent -at least partially because it offered less stigma than the "mental retardation" label and offered hope of cure . One interesting aside is that as therapies positively impacted autistic symptoms such as head banging or hand biting- symptoms previously considered intrinsic to the syndrome abated and the definition of autism changed.
Readers will learn all about the major players as causation and treatment theories evolved-Bruno Bettelheim (promoted out of home placement with milieu therapy), Leo Kanner (who thought autism extremely rare and the fault of cold parenting), Bernard Rimland (who believed that autistic children inherited unusually high intelligence from their gifted parents), Eric Schopler (encouraged parents to be collaborators in their children's education), Stanley Greenspan's `Floor time" and occupational therapist A. Jean Ayres sensory integration therapy that attempts to improve sensory-motor skills and learning by altering the nervous system. Sensory integration therapy like several other interventions is not designed to specifically cure autism but to help improve the functional skills of children with many different types of disabilities, including learning disabilities. The variety of treatments and who they helped created what we now call "the autism spectrum" and regardless of the person's skill level an arsenal of therapies and alternative medicine options (i.e. special diets, vitamin supplements, removal of toxins, magnets) have emerged to treat the many social/communication and sensory motor deficits associated with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD).
I highly recommend reading The Autism Matrix if you are in any way connected to the autism community. As an occupational therapist, author, presenter and parent of a young man with Asperger's syndrome I am obsessed with learning new truths. If you share this sensibility- this book will not disappoint.
Barbara Smith, M.S., OTR/L,author of The Recycling Occupational Therapist.