The Archaeology of Mind: Neuroevolutionary Origins of Human Emotions (Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology) (英語) ハードカバー – 2012/9/17
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What makes us happy? What makes us sad? How do we come to feel a sense of enthusiasm? What fills us with lust, anger, fear, or tenderness? Traditional behavioral and cognitive neuroscience have yet to provide satisfactory answers. The Archaeology of Mind presents an affective neuroscience approachwhich takes into consideration basic mental processes, brain functions, and emotional behaviors that all mammals shareto locate the neural mechanisms of emotional expression. It revealsfor the first timethe deep neural sources of our values and basic emotional feelings.This book elaborates on the seven emotional systems that explain how we live and behave. These systems originate in deep areas of the brain that are remarkably similar across all mammalian species. When they are disrupted, we find the origins of emotional disorders:- SEEKING: how the brain generates a euphoric and expectant response- FEAR: how the brain responds to the threat of physical danger and death- RAGE: sources of irritation and fury in the brain- LUST: how sexual desire and attachments are elaborated in the brain- CARE: sources of maternal nurturance- GRIEF: sources of non-sexual attachments- PLAY: how the brain generates joyous, rough-and-tumble interactions- SELF: a hypothesis explaining how affects might be elaborated in the brainThe book offers an evidence-based evolutionary taxonomy of emotions and affects and, as such, a brand-new clinical paradigm for treating psychiatric disorders in clinical practice.
Eloquently written, this brilliant text firmly incorporates laboratory animal research, as well as neuroscientific human studies, to plumb the recesses of the mammalian brain to expound our understanding of human emotionality. . . . This body of work reveals how basic mammalian emotions are shared amongst mammalian species, debunking the illusion of the uniqueness of human emotional experiences while aiding in our understanding of emotions, psychopathologies, and treatment capabilities.-- (03/01/2014)
[A] successful overview of the affective systems . . . . [O]f interest not only to basic scientists interested in preclinical modeling but also to clinicians and clinical researchers interested in the neurobiology of addiction, emotional disorders, and novel pharmacological and psychosocial interventions.-- (08/01/2013)
[W]ill appeal to anyone who seeks to understand the origins of our emotions and the mechanisms that tie our affective experiences to our behaviors. Clinicians and psychotherapists are an obvious potential audience. Panksepp and Biven . . . contend that an affective neuroscience perspective has a lot to offer to psychiatric research and practice. . . . [T]his text is accessible to a host of researchers trained in that theoretical tradition, including, but not limited to, the rapidly growing community of evolutionary psychologists across diverse academic disciplines. . . . [W]ould be appropriate reading for an advanced undergraduate course or a graduate seminar across the many disciplines that are now adopting neuroscientific methods of inquiry to study human psychology and behavior.-- (05/22/2013)
Integrative, judicious, creative, welcoming of divergent perspectives, and very accessible, this is a grand synthesis and should be part of every library. . . . Essential.-- (05/22/2013)
[A]n exhaustive work, covering a neglected and often misunderstood field . . . . Nowhere else will you really find due diligence done on the non-conscious biases of humans and animals . . . . [E]ssential reading, not only to us as mind professionals, but to teachers, parents, personal and physical trainers and coaches. Emotions are still everything, and vital to understanding why we are what we are, and why we do and have done, everything in the past and now. An amazing buy.-- (04/16/2013)
The book will be of special interest to psychiatrists and other mental health professionals, but it is also accessible to students, parents, educators, and animal behaviorists.-- (04/16/2013)
This is a highly original and exciting book. The vital distinction between eager anticipation and straightforward pleasure is only one among many of its important findings. The implications for clinical assessment and treatment, especially with depressed and cut-off patients, are profound.-- (04/16/2013)
Panksepp's perspective on the continuity of animal and human minds has not received the attention it deserves. Here are the collected facts and the reasoning behind that compelling view. An indispensable volume.-- (04/16/2013)
Immensely learned, consistently lucid, and truly groundbreaking. This book repeatedly elicited my 'ahhhh, yes.' For Panksepp and Biven, understanding the evolution of the brain holds the key to solving large-scale mysteries about how the brain works. Thus, they draw upon detailed comparisons of the behavior and functional anatomy in mammals, from rodents to humans. The upshot is a profoundly insightful theory, especially as it explains the complex relation between the subcortical platform of motivations, emotions, and automatic responses, and the evolutionary newcomer--the cortex-- whose sophisticated contribution to control, evaluation and knowledge emerges as the brain learns and develops into maturity.-- (04/16/2013)
Jaak Panksepp is the most important theorist of mental life that I have read since Freud. The impact of his scientific contributions will be felt for decades to come. His findings--so lucidly introduced in this accessible book with Lucy Biven--herald a new Golden Age. They are almost bound to place 21st-century psychiatry on a whole new foundation. In these pages, the supposed chasm between mind and brain disappears before your eyes, the veil is lifted, and new vistas appear before you. These vistas are the future of the science of the mind.-- (04/16/2013)
"How does it come to pass that the material processes of the brain beget a mind, a `me'?" (p. 392) In what might be considered an attempt to identify neural correlates of consciousness, Panksepp argues that neuroscience can best answer this question, not from the traditional top down (examining the neurocortex, i.e, cognition) but nontraditionally from the bottom up (medial brain-stem regions, i.e. affect): Panksepp, Affective Neuroscience, 1998).
Panksepp argues for a primary process of the mind, a "Simple Ego-type Life Form (SELF),"-- the coherent center of gravity for internal organismic visceral-affective and external sensory-motor representations." (p. 390)., which he calls Dual-Aspect [visceral/sensory] Monism [Brain, subcortical and cortical].
Panksepp also refers to the embodied "core-SELF, " or primary-process self, "a primordial representation the body, especially the visceral body, within the brain" as the "foundation for affective `being" and the emergence of the higher [neocortical] mental apparatus" p. 390.
While Descartes's "cogito ergo sum" only confirmed the existence of thinking, which is a disembodied form of higher consciousness" he only "implicitly accepted that the existence of consciousness, along with a coherent and stable set of autobiographical memories, implied the existence of a self." (p. 421)
Panksepp asserts that "midline systems in the brain, which give all mammals a universal (nomothetic) core SELF, [and] can support various renditions of the self (idiographic forms) in other regions of the brain related to higher information processing." "The self initially evolved as a homologous nomothetic core SELF which helps the rest of the brain elaborate more idiographic forms of self-hood."
"Primary-process emotional systems play a pivotal role in the functioning of the core SELF." "Affects are created when midline systems assume distinct types of neuronal firing patterns when the various emotional networks [the seven identified] are aroused." "Primary-process affects always evaluate the internal and external world in relation to the survival of the individual, and the species . . . and are [thus] `active' information-seeking creatures." (p. 421)
So Panksepp is founding neural correlates of consciousness in the SCMS (subcortical, affective) and only secondarily in the CMS (cortical, cognitive).
Therefore, in accordance with his dual-aspect monism, "subcortical midline emotional systems (SCMS) concurrently generate various behavioral physiological, and affective emotional manifestations through a coherent integrated system for SELF representation." (p. 422)
Familiarity with the structures by which reality is experienced must be acquired prior to accurate descriptions, let alone explanations. Those who seek to clarify human experience should find this concept of a core SELF extremely helpful.