Algebraic Topology: A First Course (Graduate Texts in Mathematics) (英語) ペーパーバック – 2013/10/4
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To the Teacher. This book is designed to introduce a student to some of the important ideas of algebraic topology by emphasizing the re lations of these ideas with other areas of mathematics. Rather than choosing one point of view of modem topology (homotopy theory, simplicial complexes, singular theory, axiomatic homology, differ ential topology, etc.), we concentrate our attention on concrete prob lems in low dimensions, introducing only as much algebraic machin ery as necessary for the problems we meet. This makes it possible to see a wider variety of important features of the subject than is usual in a beginning text. The book is designed for students of mathematics or science who are not aiming to become practicing algebraic topol ogists-without, we hope, discouraging budding topologists. We also feel that this approach is in better harmony with the historical devel opment of the subject. What would we like a student to know after a first course in to pology (assuming we reject the answer: half of what one would like the student to know after a second course in topology)? Our answers to this have guided the choice of material, which includes: under standing the relation between homology and integration, first on plane domains, later on Riemann surfaces and in higher dimensions; wind ing numbers and degrees of mappings, fixed-point theorems; appli cations such as the Jordan curve theorem, invariance of domain; in dices of vector fields and Euler characteristics; fundamental groups商品の説明をすべて表示する
As a warm-up in Part 1, the author gives an overview of calculus in the plane, with the intent of eventually defining the local degree of a mapping from an open set in the plane to another. This is done in the second part of the book, where winding numbers are defined, and the important concept of homotopy is introduced. These concepts are shown to give the fundamental theorem of algebra and invariance of dimension for open sets in the plane. The delightful Ham-Sandwich theorem is discussed along with a proof of the Lusternik-Schnirelman-Borsuk theorem. I would like to see a constructive proof of this theorem, but I do not know of one.
Part 3 is the tour de force of algebraic topology, for it covers the concepts of cohomology and homology. The author pursues a non-traditional approach to these ideas, since he introduces cohomology first, via the De Rham cohomology groups, and these are used to proved the Jordan curve theorem. Homology is then effectively introduced via chains, which is a much better approach than to hit the reader with a HOM functor. Part 4 discusses vector fields and the discussion reads more like a textbook in differential topology with the emphasis on critical points, Hessians, and vector fields on spheres. This leads naturally to a proof of the Euler characteristic.
The Mayer-Vietoris theory follows in Part 5, for homology first and then for cohomology.
The fundamental group finally makes its appearance in Part 6 and 7, and related to the first homology group and covering spaces. The author motivates nicely the Van Kampen theorem. A most interesting discussion is in part 8, which introduces Cech cohomology. The author's treatment is the best I have seen in the literature at this level. This is followed by an elementary overview of orientation using Cech cocycles.
All of the constructions done so far in the plane are generalized to surfaces in Part 9. Compact oriented surfaces are classified and the second de Rham cohomology is defined, which allows the proof of the full Mayer-Vietoris theorem.
The most important part of the book is Part 10, which deals with Riemann surfaces. The author's treatment here is more advanced than the rest of the book, but it is still a very readable discussion. Algebraic curves are introduced as well as a short discussion of elliptic and hyperelliptic curves.
The level of abstraction increases greatly in the last part of the book, where the results are extended to higher dimensions. Homological algebra and its ubiquitous diagram chasing are finally brought in, but the treatment is still at a very understandable level.
For examples of the author's pedagogical ability, I recommend his book Toric Varieties, and his masterpiece Intersection Theory.