世界内存在―『存在と時間』における日常性の解釈学 単行本 – 2000/9
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Being-in-the-World is a guide to one of the most influential philosophical works of this century: Division I of Part One of Being and Time, where Martin Heidegger works out an original and powerful account of being-in-the-world which he then uses to ground a profound critique of traditional ontology and epistemology. Hubert Dreyfus's commentary opens the way for a new appreciation of this difficult philosopher, revealing a rigorous and illuminating vocabulary that is indispensable for talking about the phenomenon of world.
The publication of Being and Time in 1927 turned the academic world on its head. Since then it has become a touchstone for philosophers as diverse as Marcuse, Sartre, Foucault, and Derrida who seek an alternative to the rationalist Cartesian tradition of western philosophy. But Heidegger's text is notoriously dense, and his language seems to consist of unnecessarily barbaric neologisms; to the neophyte and even to those schooled in Heidegger thought, the result is often incomprehensible.
Dreyfus's approach to this daunting book is straightforward and pragmatic. He explains the text by frequent examples drawn from everyday life, and he skillfully relates Heidegger's ideas to the questions about being and mind that have preoccupied a generation of cognitive scientists and philosophers of mind.--このテキストは、ペーパーバック版に関連付けられています。
Including the introduction there are 16 chapters in Being-in-the-World. In the Introduction Professor Dreyfus provides rationale for why anyone should even "care" about studying Being and Time. The following 15 chapters deal with particular aspects of the Being of beings and Being in the world.
As an example of Dreyfus's ability to make Heidegger comprehensible I have selected a section from Chapter 4 in Being-in-the-World. In this chapter labeled Availableness and Occurrentness Dreyfus quotes Heidegger:
"In everyday terms, we understand ourselves and our existence by way of the activities we pursue and the things we take care of. (BP, 159). To Exist then means, among other things, relating to oneself by being with beings. (BP,157).
A fairly clear statement by Heidegger in itself. But Dreyfus buttresses this with discussion of Heidegger's two modes of being. One mode of being is called "availableness" and "occurrentness." And the other mode of being called "comportment and cognition." According to Heidegger these two modes reveal the implausibility of Cartesian-like accounts of "knowing objects" through disinterested, self-sufficient, context-free contemplation of things as substance. Instead, Dasein knows things (i.e., entities and Beings) by existing, or interacting with them to accomplish some task or goal of especial importance to Dasein. Hence - and unlike Cartesian accounts - things are known to Dasein not by contemplating them first and interacting with them second but by the reverse. Active involvement with things and people is more basic to making things intelligible than is simply looking at them.
In sum, I recommend Being-in-the-World to anyone with more than a passing interest in Being and Time. Professor Dreyfus does an outstanding job of making the seemingly incomprehensible knowable.
To get a feel for Dreyfus, search for his interviews on YouTube. If you like those, you'll like this book.