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Triangle: The Fire That Changed America
 
 
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Triangle: The Fire That Changed America [ハードカバー]

David Von Drehle
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On March 25, 1911, a fire broke out in the Triangle Shirtwaist factory in New York's Greenwich Village. Within minutes it had spread to consume the building's upper three stories. Firemen who arrived at the scene were unable to rescue those trapped inside: their ladders simply weren't tall enough. People on the street watched in horror as desperate workers jumped to their death. The final toll was 146 people -- 123 of them women. It was the worst disaster in New York City history. This harrowing yet compulsively readable book is both a chronicle of the Triangle Shirtwaist fire and a vibrant portrait of an entire age. It follows the waves of Jewish and Italian immigration that inundated New York in the early years of the century, filling its slums and supplying its garment factories with cheap, mostly female labor. It portrays the Dickensian work conditions that led to a massive waist-worker's strike in which an unlikely coalition of socialists, socialites, and suffragettes took on bosses, police, and magistrates. Von Drehle shows how popular revulsion at the Triangle catastrophe led to an unprecedented alliance between idealistic labor reformers and the supremely pragmatic politicians of the Tammany machine.

レビュー

"Von Drehle...has written what is sure to become the definitive account of the fire." -"The New York Times Book Review" "Triangle carries the reader deep into a portrait of early 20th Century New York...when colorful machine politicians battled socialists, suffragists and upright progressive reformers for the soul of an increasingly immigrant city. Von Drehle paints the young Jewish and Italian immigrants who labored at Triangle...he is clearly captivated by their spirit."- "The Chicago Tribune" "A strong piece of writing whose edge seems to have been supplied by a haunting sense of Sept. 11, 2001. . . . The heart of Von Drehle's book is its detailed, nuanced, mesmerizing description of the fire. It's movement is tracked relentlessly and repeatedly, moment by moment, in context after context, as it sweeps the factory, out of control in a matter of seconds." --Vivian Gornick, "The Los Angeles Times Book Review" "Von Drehle paints a vivid portrait of early-20th-century Gotham, full of corrupt Tammany Hall bigwigs, passionate labor reformers, and factory owners whose callous disregard for safety by illegally blocking exists caused the fatalities. . . . Most indelible are the stories of the young victims whose lives were extinguished in just minutes. A-" --Bob Cannon, "Entertainment Weekly" "An enthralling chronicle . . . which left its own profound mark on the city and taught lessons that we are badly in need of remembering. . . . Von Drehle's spellbinding and detailed reconstruction of the disaster is complemented by an equally gripping account of the factory owners' subsequent manslaughter trial." --Mike Wallace, "The New York Times" "A superb social history. Von Drehle transforms solid research into graphic detail and gives immediacy to the distant events. Chapters on the fire are so spellbinding that readers will need air at the end. . . . Triangle is a thorough and satisfying read." --Lyn Milner, "USA Today" "Von Drehle ha --このテキストは、 ペーパーバック 版に関連付けられています。

登録情報

  • ハードカバー: 340ページ
  • 出版社: Atlantic Monthly Pr (2003/08)
  • 言語: 英語, 英語, 英語
  • ISBN-10: 0871138743
  • ISBN-13: 978-0871138743
  • 発売日: 2003/08
  • 商品パッケージの寸法: 23.4 x 16.6 x 3 cm
  • おすすめ度: 5つ星のうち 5.0  レビューをすべて見る (1 件のカスタマーレビュー)
  • Amazon ベストセラー商品ランキング: 洋書 - 1,055,878位 (洋書のベストセラーを見る)
  •  カタログ情報、または画像について報告


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最も参考になったカスタマーレビュー
5つ星のうち 5.0 911テロ以前で最悪の災害 2005/2/5
形式:ハードカバー
高層ビルから人が飛び降りて死ぬ。
2001年9月11日のことではなく、1911年3月25日のこと。
あまりの悲惨さに涙があふれ、読むのを中断せざるを得ないことが
幾度かありました。避難するためにあと3分あれば・・・、という
著者の推測にただ頷き、「どうしてこんなことが起こり得たのか」と
怒り、もしくはそれを通り越し呆れ返ることもあるでしょう。
しかしただ悲劇のみを書き連ねたものではなく、当時の時代精神や
「タマニーホール」という集票組織の重要人物の利害関係が描かれ、
火災が政治改革につながっていく過程が分かり易く書かれ、単なる
「女工哀史」として片付けられるものではないところが魅力です。
裁判についての章では法廷で傍聴しているかのような臨場感が
味わえるかもしれません。そしてユダヤ人・イタリア人移民の遺族で
なくとも被告に対して「人殺し!」と叫んでしまいたくなるかも
しれません。悲劇が忘却される「歴史の深淵」から事件の全容を
引きずり出し白日の下にさらそうという著者の強い意志が伝わる
好著です。
このレビューは参考になりましたか?
Amazon.com で最も参考になったカスタマーレビュー (beta)
Amazon.com: 5つ星のうち 4.6  113 件のカスタマーレビュー
97 人中、95人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
5つ星のうち 5.0 From the author 2003/12/23
By David Von Drehle - (Amazon.com)
形式:ハードカバー
Richard Peladeau has leapt to a mistaken conclusion in his review of my book.
The young woman he mentions in his review, Rosie Freedman, did, in fact, die in the fire, and her life story is an important part of "Triangle." She was born in Bialystok, Poland, in the early 1890s. In 1906--as a young teenager--she survived one of the deadliest pogroms in Russian history. Her family then sent her, alone, across Europe to board a steamship for the crossing to New York. After clearing Ellis Island, she went to live with an aunt and uncle who were already in New York. It's likely she had never met them.
At age 14, Rosie managed to earn enough in the garment factories to pay her room and board, cover her expenses, and send money home to support the family she left behind.
Rosie Freedman died in the Triangle fire, on March 25, 1911.
About 350 workers survived that fire. One was a teenager named Rose Rosenfeld. Years later, she married a man named Freedman, and Rose Rosenfeld became Rose Freedman. Mr. Peladeau is correct that Rose Rosenfeld-Freedman lived to the age of 107, and was the longest-lived survivor of the fire.
This is all explained in the end notes of "Triangle." Mr. Peladeau is wrong. These are two entirely different people. This is not a major mistake--in fact, as other reviewers have noted, "Triangle" contains more information about the lives of the Triangle factory workers than any previous book on this subject.
--David Von Drehle
63 人中、60人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
5つ星のうち 5.0 What Caused the Fire, and What the Fire Caused 2003/9/23
By R. Hardy - (Amazon.com)
形式:ハードカバー
Before 11 September 2001, the worst workplace disaster in New York City was the fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in Greenwich Village on 25 March 1911. As recounted in a riveting history, _Triangle: The Fire That Changed America_ (Atlantic Monthly Press) by David Von Drehle, the fire was caused not just by a careless cigarette, but by social, industrial, and labor forces summed to that point, and true to the subtitle, it changed those forces ever afterward. Anyone studying the economics and history of twentieth century America needs to know the prominence of the sweatshops, but as Von Drehle points out, we are now once again concerned about the sweatshops from where our clothes issue (they just don't happen to predominate in New York anymore). And though after Triangle there were important safety laws imposed in New York, there are still factory disasters happening in the equivalent of sweatshops in other parts of the world.
Ironically, the Triangle factory made shirtwaists, which were the women's blouses of the time, and they were something of a sartorial liberation for women. It was a practical garment, with no hoops or corsets, and yet it was fashionable enough for the Gibson Girl. The book covers the lengthy strike at Triangle of 1909, but the strike was not about safety, just hours and pay. Von Drehle shows that there had already been factory buildings successfully protected from fire. Automatic sprinklers, firewalls, and fireproof doors and stairways were, from the 1880s, standard in some factories. The Triangle owners paid lots for insurance, and little for safety. The building itself was promoted as fireproof, and it proved essentially to be, but the contents were certainly not. There were about 250 workers in the building, and as they attempted to escape, each fire hazard took its toll. A door to the rear stairway was locked, for instance, because the owners insisted that workers use only one stairway. This ensured that before leaving the building, everyone could be checked for goods smuggled out. Crowds mobbed shut other doors which opened inwards. The account of the fire is vivid and scary. 140 people died in the fire, 123 of them women. About a hundred of the deaths were those who fell or jumped.
The owners were tried for manslaughter. Van Drehle has uncovered a lost transcript of the trial, which focused on the locked doors. On the stand, one of the owners stressed the importance of having the door locked to prevent theft, but when pressed to state how much loss there had been to theft, he admitted that it was less than $25 a year. The owners were deemed not guilty, and gained $60,000 in insurance payments. The resulting public outcry provided a new impetus for workplace safety, creating rules that are in force even today, like the ones requiring outward swinging doors. Van Drehle shows that even more importantly, it began to be taken for granted that a progressive government ought to be regulating such matters. Tammany Hall came around to protecting the workers, and from this change grew such philosophies as the New Deal. _Triangle_ compellingly tells the story of the building's fire, but even better, it covers the stories of the women workers involved in the disaster, and the changes the fire brought. The fire lasted a horrific ten minutes in 1911, but it has not finished burning yet.
44 人中、40人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
5つ星のうち 5.0 From Fire to Reform 2003/10/25
By Rocco Dormarunno - (Amazon.com)
形式:ハードカバー
I normally avoid books that focus on horrific events in history because they mostly exploit and sensationalize the disaster for their authors' obvious motive: profit. David Von Drehle has no interest in exploiting this exceptionally terrible moment in New York's--and even America's--history. His compassion for the victims, his admiration for the reformers, and his loathing for those who caused and profited from the fire is obvious on every page, and in every word.
Framed by the scorn and indifference toward laborers before the fire, and the realization of guilt that led to the rush to reform after it, the events of March 25, 1911 are heartbreakingly described by Mr. Von Drehle's vivid prose. But the description of the actual fire is only part of the book. He doesn't linger over the gruesome details to satisfy some cruel, voyeuristic hunger that some readers might have expected. There's just enough narrative to convey the chaos, terror and sadness of the event. To prevent the story from getting too morbid, the author diligently included the many individual acts of heroism by police, firemen, passersby and neighboring NYU students.
The main purpose of the book, as the subtitle explains, is to demonstrate how the Triangle catastrophe profoundly affected Tammany Hall, New York City and State government, the federal governemt, the labor union movement, socialists, and Democrats. The dedication of the reformers and labor leaders like Al Smith, Frances Perkins, Robert Wagner, Sr., Clara Lemlich, and so on, is also highlighted. The owners of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, Max Blanck and Isaac Harris, receive the vilification they deserve. And somewhere in the moral gray area are the two most enigmatic figures: Tammany leader Charles Murphy and the attorney for Blanck and Harris, Max Steuer.
One last note: the book is a fascinating history of the history of the disaster. By that I mean that Mr. Von Drehle reports how others before him--the newspapers, Attorney Steuer, Clara Lemlich, and Leon Stein--recounted the events of that dark day, and how frighteningly close we came to losing these records (especially Steuer's). It represents the debt we owe to Mr. Von Drehle's dogged research, as well as the debt he owes his predecessors. Amazing.
Rocco Dormarunno, author of The Five Points
30 人中、27人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
5つ星のうち 3.0 Good Exploration of Social and Labor Issues in New York, But Poor Presentation of Fire 2010/5/20
By Frederick S. Goethel - (Amazon.com)
形式:ハードカバー
As a fire protection engineer, I have known about the technical aspects of the fire for a great many years. It is one of the first lessons taught to new students of the field and is held up as a lesson that needed to be learned and a fire that changed the course of fire protection in America. Despite the information, I wanted to learn more about the history of the fire, and found it in this well written book.

The author does an excellent job of presenting the terrible working and living conditions that were present in the Lower East side neighborhoods during the early part of the century. Weaving together stories of immigrant's lives with the political and social issues of the day creates a New York that can be felt and seen, which gives life to the story.

Although the author slips back into the nineteenth century several times for reference, the main story starts with the labor unrest that was racking the city during the year prior to the fire. People were fed up with bad living and working conditions, over work, and a host of other factors. Strikes broke out and were quelled by the Tammany Hall machine. Eventually, various groups came together to support the strikers and a settlement, of sorts, was reached.

The author builds until the day of the fire, and then moves onto to revealing the horrors that took place on the fateful day. Sadly, the author utilizes language to describe the fire that would be better suited for describing the riots. The fire was "explosive" and it was like a "fire bomb" in nature. Both of these have specific meanings, and they are not used to discuss fires in factories unless one or the other was actually used in the building. Certainly the growth of the fire was rapid; even logarithmic in growth, but that is common of many fires. The author's use of descriptive language regarding the fire is sensationalistic and unneeded. It is obvious that the author knows little about fire and never consulted with an expert while writing the book.

In addition, the author gave scant attention to what could have prevented the fire in the first place and then got some of the information so that it pained me to read it. The author compares the Triangle Company to factories in New England that were already using various fire prevention techniques and presents the history of the use of such equipment. While that may seem like a good idea, in fact it is like comparing apples with watermelons. The construction of the buildings was totally different, with the New England mills located next to rivers that could siphoned for water in the event of a fire. In addition, the mills had large boilers operating that could power huge steam pumps to provide the needed pressure. They were about 6 stories high at most, and were a full block in size. The Asch building, by comparison, was 10 stories tall and had no room for a large fire pump. It would have needed to rely on a roof tank for pressure for a sprinkler system. IT had one, which failed and the author makes no mention as to why.

A second protection feature that the author argues for were fire walls. The Asch building was a total of about 9000 square feet in size. Fire walls are rarely used to separate out areas of buildings under 10,000 feet in size. In addition the type of construction used to allow the Asch building to rise to 10 stories would not have been able to hold the weight of a real fire wall.

The author did hit on some things that needed to change: better exits, fire drills, better and safer fire escapes, but it is painfully obvious that the author knows little about fire and is more of a social commentator.

The book is good if you want a discussion of the social issues that resulted in the people being employed in the building and what New York was like at the time. Do not, however, think that you will learn accurate information about the fire itself.
20 人中、18人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
5つ星のうち 5.0 Social history at its best 2003/10/9
By Matthew Spady - (Amazon.com)
形式:ハードカバー
David Von Drehle's "Triangle" is social history at its best. He re-examines this tragic event, which had been relocated to a footnote in history, and places it in a broad historical context. He minimizes the sensational aspects of the tragedy and fully illuminates the social conditions that led to it, as well as workplace and political changes that flowed from it. That is not to say, however, that he does not fully describe the horrors of the fire, the falling bodies, the charred remains or the quirks of fate that saved one victim and doomed another. In the central chapters of the book, his vigorous prose projects the reader right into the heart of the fire.
In the first part of the book, Von Drehle examines the victims of the fire that broke out shortly before quitting time at the Triangle Shirtwaist (i.e., blouse) factory on Saturday, March 25, 1911. Who were they? Why did the come to America? Why did they take factory jobs instead of domestic jobs? Where did they live? What did they wear? What did they do in their spare time? Von Drehle brings these people and their neighborhoods to life.
Nor does he ignore, or spare, the management. Immigrants and textile workers themselves, Max Blanck and Isaac Harris had risen in the world and owned a series of factories, as they called these sweatshops. Von Drehle details the tactics they used to resistance to unions and break strikes. He describes some of their cost-saving practices (including cheating workers out of earned wages) and provides convincing evidence that they had a history of torching their own workshops at the end of the season to collect the insurance on unsold merchandise. If so, Von Drehle reasons that since the Triangle Fire occurred near the end of the season, Blanck and Harris might have been warehousing unsold garments at the Triangle shop, which would have added fuel and death to the conflagration. Locked doors, bins full of flammable material, insufficient water, a flimsy fire escape and non-existant fire procedures all added to the disaster. When we learn, in the last section of the book, that Blanck and Harris were brought to trial, but then acquitted, we feel righteous indignation along with the survivors and mourners of the victims.
Von Drehle's research is extensive; nothing seems to escape his attention. He describes the high-society women who gave emotional and financial support to strikers and then fell away after they realized the anti-capitalist sentiments of some of the leaders. He contrasts the social conditions of the immigrants from Eastern Europe (mainly Jewish) with those from Italy (mainly Catholic), conditions that these immigrants brought with them and that affected their responses to the union movement and to the workplace in general. And, he describes living conditions, including a concise explanation of a typical tenement.
The Appendix includes a list and brief description of each of the known victims, apparently the only complete list ever assembled. What a fitting memorial to these workers.
This is a engrossing read, well-written and authoritative.
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