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Mother Nature: Maternal Instincts and How They Shape the Human Species (英語) ペーパーバック – 2000/9/5

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内容紹介

Maternal instinct--the all-consuming, utterly selfless love that mothers lavish on their children--has long been assumed to be an innate, indeed defining element of a woman's nature. But is it? In this provocative, groundbreaking book, renowned anthropologist (and mother) Sarah Blaffer Hrdy shares a radical new vision of motherhood and its crucial role in human evolution.

Hrdy strips away stereotypes and gender-biased myths to demonstrate that traditional views of maternal behavior are essentially wishful thinking codified as objective observation. As Hrdy argues, far from being "selfless," successful primate mothers have always combined nurturing with ambition, mother love with sexual love, ambivalence with devotion. In fact all mothers, in the struggle to guarantee both their own survival and that of their offspring, deal nimbly with competing demands and conflicting strategies.

In her nuanced, stunningly original interpretation of the relationships between mothers and fathers, mothers and babies, and mothers and their social groups, Hrdy offers not only a revolutionary new meaning to motherhood but an important new understanding of human evolution. Written with grace and clarity, suffused with the wisdom of a long and distinguished career, Mother Nature is a profound contribution to our understanding of who we are as a species--and why we have become this way.

出版社からのコメント

"Sarah Hrdy's magisterial survey of childbearing through the ages sets a new standard for the graceful blending of scholarship, field research and personal experience. As meticulously documented as the book is, it never loses the human touch...Mother Nature is one of those landmark books that forces you to rethink everything you thought you knew about human nature..."
-- San Francisco Chronicle

"This is a superb book. It is beautifully and clearly written, by one of the nation's leading primatologists and sociobiologists, without sacrificing intellectual rigor; it is the best introduction I know to both fields. It establishes more convincingly than any other work with which I am familiar the relevance of the study of (other) primates and of human evolution, to urgent current issues of public policy involving women, children, and the family."
-- Richard Posner, Chief Judge, US Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit

"A magnificent synthesis of ideas about motherhood, this is a book brimming with warmth, wisdom, and wit. It is not easy in a polarised academic world to keep a foot in the feminist camp and another in evolutionary psychology, nor to bridge the arts and sciences so effortlessly. But Sarah Blaffer Hrdy achieves these feats."
-- Matt Ridley, author of The Origins of Virtue : Human Instincts and the Evolution of Cooperation

"Hrdy has given us a truly monumental work, as elegant as it is insightful. It took a woman scientist to find the rightful place of our species in the matrix of the animal kingdom, and Hrdy has done so brilliantly. This is by no means the usual psychobabble or hodge podge of animal behavior that other authors so often use to define us -- here is a clear and telling examination of a hitherto almost unknown organism -- the human female. Any woman wanting to know who she really is will find out in the pages of this tremendously important work of real science by a real scientist."
-- Elizabeth Marshall Thomas

"This is a brilliant, liberating book on a profoundly important subject. Sarah Hrdy, the leading scientific authority on motherhood, is also, to the benefit of us all, one of the best stylists now writing on any subject in science."
-- E.O. Wilson

"Mother Nature is a pioneering reassessment of key assumptions in debates about human evolution. By demonstrating how female strategies as mates and mothers have shaped the evolutionary process throughout nature, Hrdy succeeds in overturning some of the most entrenched theories in this scientific domain. A worthy companion to Darwin's Descent of Man, and an endlessly fascinating read, Mother Nature reflects a lifetime of bold research and judicious thought by one of the foremost primatologists of our day."
-- Frank Sulloway

"Mother Nature is a stunning achievement. The book reveals the highest scholarship with an unparalleled breadth in the use of the comparative method. Hrdy expertly uses the comparative method. Hrdy expertly uses the comparative method to illustrate her points by contrasting biology and behavior across species and orders, and by making full use of human variation both through evolutionary and historical time and across space and cultures. This book is a very accessible, scientific discussion of the evolutionary history of maternal care written by a first rate scientist."--Jane B. Lancaster, Editor of Human Nature

"By demolishing superstitions that have long clouded our true natures, Sarah Hrdy shows how knowledge may be our best tool for achieving justice among women, men, and the generations that follow. Clear-eyed science can equip us for this liberating journey, far better than any rigid ideology. Mother Nature takes us one bold step along that road."
-- David Brin, author of Glory Season and The Transparent Society

"This is a deep and brilliant work, a masterful account of mother nature and the nature of motherhood, with a superb selection of photos, built on a powerful logic by someone who easily and clearily sees life both from the inside and the outside."
-- Robert Trivers, Professor of Anthropology and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University

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  • ペーパーバック: 752ページ
  • 出版社: Ballantine Books (2000/9/5)
  • 言語: 英語
  • ISBN-10: 0345408934
  • ISBN-13: 978-0345408938
  • 発売日: 2000/9/5
  • 商品パッケージの寸法: 15.4 x 3.2 x 23.3 cm
  • おすすめ度: 5つ星のうち 3.5  レビューをすべて見る (2件のカスタマーレビュー)
  • Amazon 売れ筋ランキング: 洋書 - 181,528位 (洋書の売れ筋ランキングを見る)
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4 人中、4人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。 投稿者 shorebird 投稿日 2003/8/11
形式: ハードカバー
ハーディによるヒトの母と子の進化生態学の啓蒙書.母の視点,子の視点からの生態戦略,条件付戦略,発達戦略,トレードオフ,オスとメスのコンフリクト(量か質か),親と子のコンフリクト,文化,歴史,ジェノミックインプリンティング,アタッチメントセオリーそして働く母と子育ての葛藤まで充実した内容.衝撃的なのはその中で子殺し,捨て子の与えた影響の大きさ.父親以外のオスからの攻撃に加えて,母の戦略としての捨て子のリスクとそれに対抗する子の戦略が詳しく考察される.ボリューム感満点,読後感は充実の一言.
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フィードバックありがとうございました。 このレビューが不適切である場合は、当社までお知らせください。
申し訳ありませんが、お客様の投票の記録に失敗しました。もう一度試してください。
投稿者 シン 投稿日 2015/3/1
形式: ペーパーバック Amazonで購入
私はこの本を推奨しない、専門家は別として。
 ほ乳類のみならず他の脊椎動物の母親とその子の関係に関して、多岐にわたる知見を駆使して解明を試みた著書。内応は広範にわたり、レミングの出生調整なども知り得た。ただし、この例を講義に使いたかったが、文献にたどり着けないので本当かどうか疑問ではある。しかし記述はヒトに近い霊長類(霊長類の用語は差別的だが)に最も多く割かれているので、人の出産、育児、幼児殺しに敷延できるかもしれない。
 個人的な感想ではあるが、多岐にわたることがかえって論点を鮮明にすることを妨げていると思う。せっかちだとの非難を恐れずに言えば、で何が言いたいの? と言いたくなる個所が多く見られる。本を厚くするためとは考えたくないが、論点をもっと簡潔にしてほしかった。
 何よりも英語の構文が複雑である。自然科学、それも実験科学の論文に慣れた著者なら、このような書き方は、まずしない。米口語(と思う、辞書に出てこないから)の理解できない単語や成句も多すぎる。対象とする読者がアメリカのためだろうが、心理学者(進化学者?)はかく論じるのかと思えた。
 本著を読破し理解された方に敬意を表したいが、私は内容の半分程度しか理解できなかった。いずれ翻訳を読むことになるだろう。
コメント このレビューは参考になりましたか? はい いいえ 評価を送る...
フィードバックありがとうございました。 このレビューが不適切である場合は、当社までお知らせください。
申し訳ありませんが、お客様の投票の記録に失敗しました。もう一度試してください。

Amazon.com で最も参考になったカスタマーレビュー (beta)

Amazon.com: 51 件のカスタマーレビュー
44 人中、41人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
I have been recommending this book to everyone 2000/7/13
投稿者 S. Kruger - (Amazon.com)
形式: ハードカバー
As a wildlife biologist by training, I have often been leery of sociobiologists and the analogies they draw between human behavior and that of, say, ducks. With this in mind, I devoured this book until I had to return it to the library. I then haunted the library until it had gone through all 13 holds before I could get it back, several months later. Sarah Blaffer Hrdy takes a cross-cultural, historical and biological look at human and primate mothers. She makes it very clear that humans have used many, many ways to solve problems of childcare and the conflicts for resources between mothers and their infants and other older children. She uses other primate species not as proof of human ways so much as to re-evaluate and reflect on those human ways. She is a biologist, and she is very clear about not confusing what some primates do as proof for what humans do, whether closely or distantly related. "Mother Nature" gave me great insight into my relationship with my mother, my two younger brothers, my male partner, and my decision to delay reproduction. I enjoy my designation as an "allo-mother" (someone other than the mother who helps with childcare), and am pleased to learn that the level of protectiveness that I feel for the girls and young women in my Girl Scout troops have been biologically based: those who care for children, beyond the birth mothers, will have elevated levels of the hormone prolactin. I find it fascinating that my enjoyment of environmental education has a biological base!
This book also elevated my concern for the girls I work with who are teens, coming from teen mothers (who also came from teen mothers), who seem to be fast careening towards motherhood without the resources and the patience that are critical to successful rearing of children. I liked her discussion of how girls change from pre-adolescence to adolesence in foraging societies: The pre-adolescents are the girls who are more interested in learning childcare, as opposed to the adolescents, who are more interested in dating. Anecdotally, I would confirm this! In foraging societies, girls do not gain enough fat until their late adolescence to their early twenties, and thus they do not reproduce as early as their well-fed American counterparts. For me, this is all the more reason to take measures to mentor kids, so that they have children when they will it and are ready, rather than simply because they may be biologically capable of it.
22 人中、21人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
A brilliant, must-read synthesis 2000/9/20
投稿者 Judith L. Latta - (Amazon.com)
形式: ハードカバー
The reader of Mother Nature is in for a thorough treat. In its most fundamental essentials, the game of life comes down to competitive reproduction: which individuals--which lineages--produce the most young that also survive and reproduce. Sara Hrdy presents fascinating facts relating to motherhood, many little known or appreciated, that reveals the essentials of the human struggle to produce offspring and keep them alive. How has striving for power and status by females been critical to the survival of their lineages? Why does breast-feeding prevent pregnancy sometimes but not others? What about genetic changes affecting reproductive behavior in humans? There have been roughly 400 generations of humans since the Neolithic, and it has been proven (in fish, for example) that significant evolutionary changes can occur in the DNA of a species in only 40 generations; what sorts of changes may have occurred in reproducing humans? What are the causes of infanticide, by males and mothers? By presenting the research behind such facts in roughly historical sequence and because of her personal acquaintance with many of the primary researchers and theoreticians, readers get not only answers to the questions, but a wonderful sense of how science works and a feeling for the personalities who have toiled to find the truth as opposed to myth. SEX: Is it true that "Women are from Venus. Men are from Mars?" Hrdy's brilliant synthesis of over a hundred years of primarily biological and anthropological study explains how and why this catchy generalization does capture deep truth about the sexes. CHILDREN: Ever wanted to know what children need--what your child needs bare minimum--to grow into a confident caring adult with maximum potential for emotional and intellectual achievement? Assumptions of the past suggest the answer is a selfless, utterly devoted and caring mother. And we know what guilt is heaped on the head of any parent who even suspects he or she is denying this full-time, selfless sort of caretaking. But the answer, arduously won by the labors of hundreds if not thousands of biologists and anthropologists and explained by Hrdy with charming wit and style, is both astonishing and liberating. Here are three pivotal quotes: "All early caregivers become the emotional equivalent of kin." (p. 509) "Caretakers need not be the mother, or even one person, but they have to be the same caretakers." (p. 508, emphasis mine). "Any (committed) caretaker is capable of communicating the message infants desperately seek--'You are wanted and will not be set aside.'" (p. 509) Much of the book is an explanation and exploration of the basis for these provocative generalizations. If we want to create a social environment that is baby-friendly and human-friendly, what are the required fundamental ingredients for such a social world? If the goal is confident and caring adults, then Mother Nature is an extraordinary synthesis that, in my view, makes the outline of these needed ingredients quite clear. So the question now becomes, have we the will to provide the incentives--laws and resources--that will allow us to fill in the details and then act to move us toward that desired outcome? Mother Nature is a "must read" for anyone concerned with childhood and human development.
43 人中、38人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
Breathtaking 1999/11/25
投稿者 カスタマー - (Amazon.com)
形式: ハードカバー
Fantastic book that combines science with literature, history, HUMOR (great illustrations), personal stories, feminist critique, science critique, speculation, political polemic, and weird facts. I especially recommend the book for people interested in biology, history of humanity, feminism, and parenting. Hrdy is sure to win a major award for this book. I read every page.
40 人中、35人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
Factual, yet personal 2000/1/20
投稿者 カスタマー - (Amazon.com)
形式: ハードカバー
It's odd that some reviewers see this as an example of a feminist ignoring and bending facts to support feminist theory. I thought the author presented quite strong criticisms of feminism (for example, feminist claims that nursing is a socially constructed activity). In addition, one of the main points I took away from the book was decidedly UN-feminist: that male humans have been genetically selected to be LESS inclined to care for children than women are, because they can't be certain that any given child is really theirs. In contrast, since a woman knows that her child really is her child, she is MORE biologically inclined to care for it (depending on the circumstances, as Hrdy goes into at length). It did seem that Hrdy was herself not pleased with this conclusion, but discussed the issue at length nonetheless.
18 人中、17人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
Tumbling the icons 2002/12/12
投稿者 Stephen A. Haines - (Amazon.com)
形式: ハードカバー
Sarah Hrdy demolishes many long-held cultural icons with this wide-ranging study of the nature of motherhood. She is not, however, merely a nullifier of perceived wisdom. Her aim is to encourage fuller knowledge of where humans are placed in the realm of the animal kingdom. Motherhood, the essential point of how evolution works, is examined here as fully as current research can achieve. Hrdy shows how the role of "mother" and "woman" have been inextricably linked through much of Western history. Unlike other animals, humans can set ideals for behaviour, ordaining how mothers "ought to behave." Deviance from these perceived "norms" has led to various social disruptions, including the famous witchcraft scares. Ignorance of the evolutionary roots of motherhood have led to a mind-set Hrdy sets out to dispel in this excellent work. She addresses motherhood with a mind almost unfettered by myths. Almost, because she is quite candid about her own feelings and experiences. Not all her emotions were faced with total detachment.
Motherhood, she declares, is anything but the simple mythology of unrestrained devotion. Across all Nature, mothers and their offspring wage ongoing competition. The issue is resources. Infants, all infants, demand as much as a mother can give, and more. Mothers have to support their infants, but inevitably are occupied with other responsibilities, not the least of which may be the infant's siblings. There are others beyond the mother-infant tie to which she must respond. If her species is male-dominated, she may face his abuse. Worse, she may be confronted by invasion by an outside male. In some species, that spells the doom of her infant. Hrdy has studied this and related aspects of motherhood among many species, and expresses her own shock at the discovery of primate infanticide.
Mothers must maintain many elements in balance, with but a gentle pressure on the scale resulting in disaster. Family size, role in the family and in the group, location, changing conditions, all contribute to the complexity surrounding a mother's relationship with her offspring. In humans, this complicated arrangement carries the added burden of a wholly dependent child. Even monkey young can cling to a foraging mother. Human babies must be carried. In our evolutionary past, this condition made the pair vulnerable to predators. Hrdy coins the phrase "alloparent" applied to another option - allocating care of the baby to someone else. In the modern world, of course, we call it "day care." Allomothers exist in many primate species, however. "Care-giving" isn't just an urban condition.
"Allomothering" historically has led to some disreputable practices, from child slavery to outright abandonment. Hrdy cites horrifying statistics for infants abandoned at foundling homes. Still, we have no reason to doubt her numbers. Orphans, like other prisoners, are a forgotten element in civilized society. There's another side to allomothering among humans. What to do with women who are no longer able to bear children - the uniquely human phenomenon known as "menopause"? Hrdy's response typically focuses on evolutionary roots. Women no longer hindered by their own offspring are ideal care-givers. With their experience and wisdom, they readily handle child care and other activities. The "granny" evolved in humans in large part due to infant dependence, Hrdy stresses. It was a significant step in forming the human community.
Hrdy's free-flowing style and ready wit make this important book highly readable and informative. She's done, or drawn on, a wealth of research to produce it, presenting riches of information without resorting to pedantry. It's an extraordinary accomplishment, deserving your fullest attention, your gender notwithstanding.
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