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Linked: The New Science Of Networks Science Of Networks (英語) ハードカバー – 2002/5/14


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   最新ネットワーク理論が自然界、ビジネス界、医学界、人間界に及ぼす影響をはじめて詳説した、衝撃の1冊。

   1980年代、ジェイムズ・グリックの『Chaos』(邦題『カオス―新しい科学をつくる』)が、初めて「複雑系」という概念を世に紹介し、大きな話題をさらった。それに匹敵するのが、アルバート・ラズロ・バラバシによる本書である。これは、科学界の次の主役がまぎれもなく「ネットワーク理論」であることを実証した1冊だ。

   私たちはごく小さな世界に住んでいるのではないか。この世のすべてのものが、1つにつながっているのではないか。長いこと、人間はそう思って生きてきた。実際、地球上のネットワークは、今このときも果てしなく広がり続けている。人間の脳からインターネット、経済、それに個人的な友人関係に至るまで。しかも、このつながりは決して成り行きまかせのものではない。つまり、すべてのネットワークは、純然たる秩序とシンプルな法則によって成立していたのだ。この事実に、科学者たちは少なからず衝撃を受けた。これらネットワークの構造と様式を理解すれば、私たちには驚くべき力が備わるだろう。たとえば、だれもが自分の力を発揮できる最高の社内組織を編成する、壊滅的な被害を受ける前に病気の蔓延をくいとめる、といった魔法のようなことが現実となるのだ。

   著者アルバート・ラズロ・バラバシは構造物理学者。つねに革新的な意見を発表し続けるネットワーク理論研究の第一人者でもある。その彼が、本書ではネットワーク理論の最新知識を一般向けにわかりやすく解説、研究最前線で活躍する科学者たちの横顔にせまっている。彼らは、科学界全般に共通するネットワークの法則は、社会的ネットワーク、企業内ネットワーク、細胞内ネットワークにもあてはまることを証明。「この世の中のすべての事象は相互連結している」というきわめて重要な概念をさぐりあてたのだ。さらにバラバシは語る。この知識を応用すれば、サイバーキラーによるインターネット被害も、カゼによる新種ウィルス流行も回避可能、これからの民主政治の行方を左右することだって可能だ、と。権威ある学者による、実にわかりやすい解説が魅力的な本書は、科学の新世紀の幕開けを告げる、高揚感あふれる1冊だ。

 「ネットワークに注目しよう」——― 本書のメッセージはいたってシンプルだ。これは、ネットワーク理論の誕生、特徴、進化について詳しく解説した本である。本書でバラバシはこう主張する。ネットワーク理論を、自然、社会、テクノロジー全般にまであてはめて、統一されたフレームワークを構築しよう。そのうえであらゆる事象をよりよく理解し、インターネットから身体的病気に至るまでのさまざまな問題を解決しよう。ネットワークはいたるところに存在する。つまるところ、私たちに必要なのは、それを見きわめる「目」だけなのだ、と。

   たった1つの分子や遺伝子だけに着目して病気を治癒しようとすると、医師たちはたちまち困難な問題に直面してしまう。それは、生命体に共通する複雑な相互関連性を無視しているからだ。また、ネットワークを攻撃しているのはハッカーだけではない。もろい生態系ネットワークに対しては、私たち全員がまったく援助の手をさしのべようともせず、ただ「ハッキング行為」を繰り返しているだけなのだ。こんなことばかりしていたら、じきに最悪のシナリオが現実となるだろう。すなわち、私たち人間は、あらゆる「種」のなかで、ぽつんと孤立した存在になってしまうのだ…。

   本書は、地球上すべての事象を結ぶネットワークをとりあげた、驚くべき1冊。ひとたびページをめくれば、専門分野という従来の枠組みを越えた、自由な知識空間への旅が可能になる。15におよぶ「リンク」を紹介することで、「ネットワークの新科学」という新たな革命を詳説した、見逃せない1冊。(Book Description)

出版社からのコメント

ネットワークで考えよ 「この世の中はどんなふうにできているんだろう」――この疑問を感じたことのある人なら、文系理系問わず、必ず面白く読める本です。
インターネット、食物連鎖、ハリウッドの人間関係、タンパク質の働き、アルカイダの組織……
一見なんの共通項もないように見える事象を、ネットワークという視点で見直すと、

一定の数式で表される法則が見つかったというのです。
前半は伝説の科学者たちのエピソードを楽しく読んでいると、
知らず知らずのうちに、ネットワークの科学の歴史がおさらいできてしまいます。
そして後半は、さまざまな具体例を挙げて著者の理論が鮮やかに展開していきます。

読み終わるころには、身の回りのものが「あ、あれもネットワークだ」と思い当たり、世界が違って見えてくるでしょう。 --このテキストは、 単行本 版に関連付けられています。


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  • ハードカバー: 288ページ
  • 出版社: Basic Books (2002/5/14)
  • 言語: 英語, 英語, 英語
  • ISBN-10: 0738206679
  • ISBN-13: 978-0738206677
  • 発売日: 2002/5/14
  • 商品パッケージの寸法: 23.6 x 16 x 2.4 cm
  • おすすめ度: 5つ星のうち 5.0  レビューをすべて見る (2件のカスタマーレビュー)
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57 人中、49人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。 投稿者 かん 投稿日 2002/6/25
形式: ハードカバー Amazonで購入
カオスやフラクタルに関心がある方はぜひ手にとって見てください。
ネットワーク理論を説明した一般書ですが、インターネットのネットワーク構造の研究を手がかりにした記述は、理論の発展経過を面白く、かつ、わかりやすく(数式なしで)、まるで実況中継を見ているみたいに読ませてくれます。
特に、自然界から人間界にわたって広く存在するパワー則が、ネットワーク構造にも存在し、その構造は量子統計力学の式で表現できるという発見に至るまでの記述、さらに、その概念を参考にしてネットワーク構造を見直すと---。読んでいて、こんなにゾクゾクする本にめぐり合ったのは久しぶりです。
かん
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フィードバックありがとうございました。 このレビューが不適切である場合は、当社までお知らせください。
申し訳ありませんが、お客様の投票の記録に失敗しました。もう一度試してください。
38 人中、3人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。 投稿者 Amazon Customer 投稿日 2002/10/31
形式: ハードカバー
なぜ、「予感」などと言っているか。それは、ぼく自身が一読ã-た後で、ã"の本の重要なメッセージã‚'はっきりと、æ-¥æœ¬èªžã€ã¼ãã®è¨€è'‰ã§å'€åš¼ã§ãã¦ã„ない。ただ、それだã'のã"とであって、æ-°ã-いãƒ'ラダイム、ものの捉えæ-¹ãŒæç¤ºã•ã‚Œã¦ã„る重大な一冊であるã"とは確かだと思う。
ネットワーク:ãƒ"ジネスに、自然ç§'学に、社会ç§'学に。そã-て何よりも人&
...続きを読む ›
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フィードバックありがとうございました。 このレビューが不適切である場合は、当社までお知らせください。
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54 人中、51人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
Thought provoking 2002/5/27
投稿者 カスタマー - (Amazon.com)
形式: ハードカバー
With so much buzz about Wolfram's book, great to see a book that DOES talk about NEW science. Barabasi, the top guy in the new science of networks, talks about what he knows best: complexity and networks, and how they affect our life. While an easy read, it is full of so many thought provoking ideas, that I'd read for a while and then have to put it down to reflect over the details of what I'd just read. Gladwell's tipping point was an entertaining read, but light on true understanding. Linked makes up the difference: it breaks new ground, offering the reader insight and research into the structure of networks in just about all fields and aspects of life. While Gladwell chats about connectors, people who are incredibly sociable and well-connected, Barabasi is the one who really gets to the heart of the matter. He discovered these connectors (he calls them hubs) while looking at the www (Yahoo and Google are some of those), and he shows that they are present in the cell, in the business world (Vernon Jordan), in sex (Wild Chamberlain), in Hollyood (Kavin Bacon) and many other networks. These hubs are not accidents, but they appear in all networks as a simple rich gets richer process is responsible for them.
If you REALLY want to grasp how ideas spread, how to stop AIDS, how to break down the Internet, how to use your neighbor's computer, how to make your website matter or how to became a board member in a big company, Linked is a good place to start. Barabasi breaks down a complex world into very simple, clear concepts. While I have read several books about 'new' science, this one is really about something new, exciting, and hard to forget. Highly recommend it.
100 人中、90人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
A New Mathematics and Its Applications 2002/6/19
投稿者 R. Hardy - (Amazon.com)
形式: ハードカバー
What do sexually transmitted diseases, the World Wide Web, the electric power grid, Al Queda terrorists, and a cocktail party have in common? They are all networks. They conform to surprising mathematical laws which are only now becoming clear. Albert-Laszlo Barabasi has helped discover some of those laws over just the past five years, and though they are some pretty abstruse mathematics, he has written a clear and interesting guide to them, _Linked: The New Science of Networks_ (Perseus Publishing). Not only has he attempted in this book to bring the math to non-mathematicians, he has shown why the work is important in down-to-earth applications.
It is important for those multitudes who have no taste for math to know that this is not a book full of equations; Barabasi knows that for most of his readers, doing the math is not as important as getting a feel for what the math does. He explains the basic history of network theory, and then shows how his own work has turned it into a closer model of reality, a model that most of us will recognize. Networks are all around us, and they are simply not random. Some of our friends, for instance, are loners, while others seem to know everyone in town. Some websites, like Google and Amazon, we just cannot avoid clicking on or being referred to, but many others are obscure and you could only find them if someone sent you their addresses. Barabasi calls these "nodes" with such an extraordinary number of links "hubs," and he and his students have found laws of networks with hubs, showing such things as how they can continue to function if random nodes are eliminated but they fragment if the hubs are hit. Barabasi is currently doing research to show what intracellular proteins interact with other proteins, and true to form, some of them are hubs of reactions with lots of others. Finding the hubs of cancerous cells, for instance, and developing ways of taking them out, show enormous promise in the fight against cancer. And finding the hub terrorists in Al Queda in order to take them out would be the best way to eliminate the network.
Barabasi obviously enjoys drawing examples from all over, and because of his ability to link them, his book is a pleasure to read. He also shows how this type of mathematics is being done, by conference in obscure European locales and by e-mail. He shows how "eureka" insights by his students have propelled the new science, and he is full of good stories from a teacher. In fact, he is a good teacher, and those who follow along here will have reason to be glad to join, if only in the role of isolated nodes, into this network of mathematical thought.
325 人中、282人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
Cotton Candy--Lots of Air, Some Sugar, No Bibliography 2002/6/3
投稿者 Robert David STEELE Vivas - (Amazon.com)
形式: ハードカバー Amazonで購入
Updated 28 Dec 07 to add links.

I have mixed feelings about this book. On the one hand, it is coherent, thoughtful, and tells a story about the emerging science of networks that anyone, who can read, can understand. This is a non-trivial accomplishment, so 4 stars.

However, the book is also--being brilliantly designed to be understood by the lowest common denominator, an undergraduate--somewhat shallow and empty.... especially when compared with Stephen Wolfram's "A New Kind of Science", 1197 pages not counting the index, which is at the other extreme.

Although there are good notes, there is no bibliography, and the author fails to use network methodology to illustrate and document the emerging literature on networks--called citation analysis, this would have been a superb appendix to the book that would have taken it up a notch in utility.

Among the key points that the author discusses and which certainly make the book worth buying and reading, my above reservations not-with-standing:

1) Reductionism has driven 20th century science (and one might add, all other knowledge), with the result being that we have experts who know more and more about less and less--and )as CIA and FBI recently found)while leaving us devoid of generalists and multi-disciplinary artists and scientists who can "connect the dots" across these fragmented foci.

2) Contrary to the prevailing wisdom about networks being equally distributed and thus largely invulnerable to catastrophic meltdown, the author does a fine job of documenting the importance of selected "hubs", so important that their removal ultimately breaks the network down into isolated pieces. The functionality of the network, its strength, is also its weakness--vulnerability to deliberate attack against the hubs (the author does not mention the Internet domain directories except in passing while discussing a table error, but MAYEAST and MAYWEST would be two obvious directory hubs that could be better protected through replication).

3) The author inadvertently makes a vital contribution to our understanding of how to defend America against terrorism--discussing why no single authority can close down the Internet by fiat, he notes "The underlying network has become so distributed, decentralized and locally guarded that even such an ordinary task as getting a central map of it has become virtually impossible." LOCALLY GUARDED--this is the key phrase. Federalizing counter-terrorism, and using federal agents and computers at the state and local levels, will not be effective against terrorists in civilian guise within the homeland--only a complete extension of counterintelligence and counterterrorism methods to the state & local level--teaching them to fish for terrorists, rather than trying to catch the terrorists with federal trawlers, is the way to go.

4) The author flirts with what is known as nomadic computing, making the point that nodes built around individual people are becoming as important--some would say more important--in a networked economy than nodes built around static organizations. There is a useful general discussion of how "fitness" in a networked economy is a combination of speed and scalability as well as diversity of linkages. As a general rule, as the FBI found (and also CIA, INS, and the State Department), systems with a single hub resistant to initiative from the field offices will tend to be slow and ineffective.

Missing from this populist overview is a discussion of the vital importance of geospatial information. While the author helpfully notes the Earth is increasingly covered by an electronic "skin" with millions of measuring devices, with experts predicting that by 2010 there will "around 10,000 telemetric devices for each human on the planet" (one suspects this refers only to privileged humans, not the billions of dispossessed that lack telephones, never mind computers), he does not take the next essential step, which is to note that in the absence of an XML-GEO standard and a global push to associate geospatial as well as temporal tags with all data, much of what we collect will, like the trillions of bits we have collected with secret satellites, never get processed in a meaningful manner.

This is a helpful book that will be of value to the general reader at the elementary (adult) level.

See also:
The Tao of Democracy: Using Co-Intelligence to Create a World That Works for All
Group Genius: The Creative Power of Collaboration
Collective Intelligence: Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace
Global Brain: The Evolution of Mass Mind from the Big Bang to the 21st Century
One from Many: VISA and the Rise of Chaordic Organization
The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom
World Brain (Essay Index Reprint Series)
The Wisdom of Crowds
An Army of Davids: How Markets and Technology Empower Ordinary People to Beat Big Media, Big Government, and Other Goliaths
49 人中、42人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
I wish all popular science books were this good... 2002/7/12
投稿者 カスタマー - (Amazon.com)
形式: ハードカバー
This book is an absolute diamond.
I am not an explorer at the very frontiers of network dynamics, but I am an intelligent, sentient being and the ideas being developed in network research are of great importance to my life and the world I live in. I find the academic journals, where the research results are first published, (deliberately?) impenetrable, so it is a delight and a joy to find a guided tour in plain English, with an authoritative guide, through the frontiers of some very current and paradigm-changing ideas.
The book's narrative is aimed at the general public, to be sure, but I hadn't heard that being a member of the general public was a crime or a slur. Perhaps I missed a meeting. I found the writing style to be clear, concise, engaging and entertaining. In short, it was one of the best books of any genre that I have ever read and I have read hundreds.
Another reviewer of this book (see below) has said that Barabasi overemphasises the importance of preferential attachment in forming scale free network topologies. OK. Bring it on. Where is your counter explanation? What is the more important factor? Where is your clearly-written book explaining your counter argument for the likes of me? I would really like to know what else could possibly account for the emergence of this topology. It's important to me. To that reviewer I say, "publish or be dammed". I cannot abide elitism in scientific research, whereby those in the know jealously guard their secrets from the rest of us, so as to reinforce their self-belief in their uber-mortality. Join the real world. Tells us what you know without being patronising.
If, as a reader, you are in any way interested in the spread (or diffusion) of ideas, innovations, fads, viruses, memes, rumours and a hundred other phenomena or want to understand why some things are runaway hits and others not, this book will definitely stimulate your thinking. The only minor frustration I had with the book was that in identifying Microsoft's success in operating systems as analogous to a Bose Einstein condensate (a superfluid?), the book fails to explain how the condensate can evaporate...in other words, what nodal or network conditions would have to apply to overturn Microsoft's dominance?
As a published technical author myself, I know that writing this well is sheer hard work. I would be delighted if any of my own works were as brilliantly executed as Barabasi's "Linked".
Buy it. You won't be sorry.
20 人中、18人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
Of Networks and Men 2002/7/15
投稿者 t - (Amazon.com)
形式: ハードカバー
Every good song has a hook--a line or a melody that makes you want you to hear more. For me the hook that kept me reading "Linked" appears on page 6. "Here is a secret that never makes the headlines" writes the author Barabasi, a professor of physics at Notre Dame, "We have taken apart the universe and have no idea how to put it back together. After spending trillions of research dollars to dissassemble nature...we are just now acknowledging that we have no clue how to continue -- except to take it apart further."
Could the prevalent reductionism be, at this point, obscuring rather that sharpening our vision of the the world? Should we give up on the idea of having an equation that could be printed on a tee shirt that contains the Theory of Everything?
Barabasi's answer is not to stop analyzing, but rather to analyze certain relatively large self organized systems topologically over time, as if you were reading successive maps of a growing cosmopolitan region. As roads, building complexes, public areas and the like are added, the rules generating the growth and distribution of facilities make themselves plain. The network thus formed works in a manner that obeys certain laws (called power laws)and divides into highly connected places called hubs which link to less numerously connected nodes. Using this analytical approach, he poses and answers dozens of questions that should stimulate an intelligent reader into seeing the world a little differently.
In fact, much of this book's interest derives from the activity of charting itself. Barabasi, like some latter day Henry the Navigator, explains in ordinary language why Kevin Bacon is really not very central to the Hollywood map and how the late Rod Steiger was. How Microsoft follows the same laws as a strange sort of matter. He explains how Vernon Jordan got so many corporate board seats, what may be the best way to eradicate AIDs, and what may become the newest phamaceutical approaches to disease. Terrorist networks, cancer and bad economics may all one day fall victim to strategies derived from network analysis.
I have read too many popular science books to know that translating equations into popular literature is no easy feat. So many fall of their very lack of weight. My one complaint with this highly readable book is that in an effort to make the book gallop the author has taken some shortcuts which break the flow of the argument. Nonetheless, if you want to read a very good book about a scientific issue not many of us are familiar with, this is a very good one.
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