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Leonardo to the Internet: Technology & Culture from the Renaissance to the Present (Johns Hopkins Studies in the History of Technology)
 
 
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Leonardo to the Internet: Technology & Culture from the Renaissance to the Present (Johns Hopkins Studies in the History of Technology) [ペーパーバック]

Thomas J. Misa

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   孤高の発明家が辺遠から社会を変革するというイメージは、大衆の想像力に深く根付いている。しかし現実には、テクノロジーは絶え間なく続く社会的、文化的プロセスの産物だ。本書『Leonardo to the Internet』では、歴史学者のトーマス・J・ミーサがルネサンス以降のテクノロジーと社会との関わりあいの歴史を大局的に比較分析し、技術的発明が文化のなかでどのように形づくられたのか――そして逆に、テクノロジーがどのように文化を形づくったのかを検証している。ヨハネス・グーテンベルグやレオナルド・ダ・ビンチといったルネサンス時代の宮廷お抱え発明家の生涯や発明品にはじまり、産業革命時代のロンドンのビール醸造技術、そして20世紀後半のテレコミュニケーション革命まで――入念に選り抜かれたケーススタディーを魅力たっぷりに語りながら、ミーサは自らの主張を展開していく。

   テーマごとに分かれた8つの章を通じて、ミーサは発明家たちの素顔とテクノロジーの使い手たちを細かに描き出している。「近代」の幕開けにはじまり、西欧のルネサンス宮廷システムにおけるテクノロジーと政治および文化との関わりあい、オランダの商業発展でテクノロジーが果たした役割、イギリスの産業革命を生み動かしたさまざまなテクノロジー、19世紀におけるテクノロジーと帝国主義と貿易との結び付き、そして20世紀初頭にドイツや米国で進められた化学や物理分野の発明の産業への応用――そんなテーマが順を追って語られていく。さらにミーサの検証は続く。大量生産消費財の登場と、そうした商品が日常生活や現代人の感性に及ぼした影響。第2次大戦中の大規模軍需産業の勃興と、冷戦時代の統制管理経済が生んだ技術革命。1970年代以降のテクノロジー志向文化の台頭――。そして締めくくりの挑発的なエッセイでは、現代の私たちに突きつけられたテクノロジーの選択肢が提示され、そうした選択が私たちの望む未来社会の姿に与える影響が検証される。

   過去5世紀にわたってテクノロジーと文化が相互に与え合ってきた影響を見事に分析した『Leonardo to the Internet』は、学生にとっても一般読者にとっても、西洋文明におけるテクノロジーの発明や発展、変革、そして応用をより広く、より深く考えるきっかけとなる1冊だ。 --このテキストは、 ペーパーバック 版に関連付けられています。

内容紹介

Historian Thomas J. Misa's sweeping history of the relationship between technology and society over the past 500 years reveals how technological innovations have shaped-and have been shaped by-the cultures in which they arose. Spanning the preindustrial past, the age of scientific, political, and industrial revolutions, as well as the more recent eras of imperialism, modernism, and global security, this compelling work evaluates what Misa calls "the question of technology." Misa brings his acclaimed text up to date by examining how today's unsustainable energy systems, insecure information networks, and vulnerable global shipping have helped foster geopolitical risks and instability. A masterful analysis of how technology and culture have influenced each other over five centuries, Leonardo to the Internet frames a history that illuminates modern-day problems and prospects faced by our technology-dependent world

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22 人中、21人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
5つ星のうち 5.0 Broad and compelling review of technology in history 2005/10/5
投稿者 F. Orion Pozo - (Amazon.com)
形式:ハードカバー
LEONARDO TO THE INTERNET takes a broad historic look at the defining technologies of eight different eras between the 15th century and today. The author, Thomas Misa, is a professor in the Department of Humanities at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago. He looks at the relationship between technology and the various cultures of these periods and shows that "technology is not only a force for but also a product of social and cultural change."

In the first chapter, "Technologies of the Court," he looks at the court engineers, including Leonardo da Vinci, the invention of perspective in painting, and the Gutenberg printing press to show how these technologies were used, not for economic gain, but to support the royal courts and city-states of the Renaissance era.

The second chapter is entitled "Techniques of Commerce" and looks at the period from 1588 to 1740 when Dutch merchants amassed fortunes using technologies like herring fishing boat factories, windmills, and fine textiles manufacture and developed an international trade second to none. They used their wealth to support fine artists and to speculate in tulip bulbs.

"Geographies of Industry" is the third chapter and it covers the period from 1740 to 1851, the time of the Industrial Revolution in England. Rather than looking at the cities normally considered the homes of industry in this period, Misa takes a close look at industry in London, using beer brewing as his focus. He then compares London to Manchester's textiles industry and Sheffield steel manufacture. He does this to create a much more complex image of the Industrial Revolution, and to show that there were many paths to industrialization in the period.

1840 to 1914 is the subject of "Instruments of Empire," the fourth chapter. Here Misa looks at how British Imperialism and the technologies of railroads, steamships, and telegraphy interacted to create a world-spanning empire.

Chapter five, Science and Systems, covers a second industrial revolution that took place between 1870 and 1930. Here the German science-based chemical industry developed a synthetic-chemical empire based originally on fabric dyes. Also science and technological research became an integral part of industry, driving out the independent inventors of earlier times. The author also looks to America's electric lighting struggle between direct and alternating current systems. Out of these developments came modern German companies like IG Farben, BASF, Bayer, and AGFA, as well as the American firms of Westinghouse and General Electric. Misa also looks at the beginning of university industrial partnerships with the development of the MIT labs.

The first half of the 20th century is the focus of chapter six, "Materials of Modernism." Here the Italian Futurists, the German Bauhaus, and the Dutch Modernists take the modern materials of steel and glass to redefine architecture and aesthetic theories.

"The Means of Destruction," chapter seven, looks at the relationship between the military and technological innovation in the 20th century. Misa calls World War II a "war of innovation" and looks closely at the atomic programs on both sides of the war as an example of how this relationship developed. The author shows that after the war this military-technology relationship still held sway. He uses the examples of the development of solid-state electronics and digital computers to illustrate this.

In chapter 8, "Toward a Global Culture," the author shows how Globalization was the major trend in last 30 years of the 20th century. He uses the development of the international standards that made the fax machine an everyday commodity as a case study of how this happened. Then he turns his attention to the world-wide food chain McDonald's to show how culture and technology give and take together in globalization. He then ends up with a discussion of the global Internet culture, but with a nod back to the previous chapter as he shows the military influences that developed the Internet.

He ends up with a summary chapter called "The Question of Technology" where he discusses the dynamics between Science, Economics, Culture, and Change. It is here that Misa points out that the relationship between Technology and Society is a constant give and take. There is a sad note to this summation as he states that he feels the attacks of September 11, 2001 signalled an end to this era. He states that the reactions to these attacks do not fit a pattern of globalization, and goes on to say that the "vision of a peaceful world, economically integrated and culturally harmonious, knitted together by information technology, is dead." He looks forward to a new era where reformers, social movements and groups of citizens embrace technological solutions to shape a new future.
3 人中、2人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
5つ星のうち 4.0 better than i expected 2012/5/22
投稿者 ehhh??? - (Amazon.com)
形式:ペーパーバック|Amazonで購入
while i wasn't expecting much..as it was a class requirement, it turned out to be a really interesting book. good job misa. the book had plenty of smaller details and focused primarily on the technology of the time. I can say that i did enjoy reading this book and will probably reread at some point in personal interest as I was reading maybe only 60-70% of the chapter's content, like i say school requirement, didn't really have the time to read intensely.
3 人中、1人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
5つ星のうち 4.0 Needed it for a history class 2013/8/26
投稿者 Andrew McVeigh - (Amazon.com)
形式:ペーパーバック|Amazonで購入
This book is actually really interesting. I enjoyed writing a paper about it, one of the few textbooks I actually read start to finish.
6 人中、0人の方が、「このレビューが参考になった」と投票しています。
5つ星のうち 1.0 hate it 2013/7/6
投稿者 Matthew A. Culbertson - (Amazon.com)
形式:ハードカバー|Amazonで購入
Such a poorly written and hard to follow book. The author must be incredibly boring in person. Professors, please don't subject your students to this torture!
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