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The Human Machine (Dover Anatomy for Artists) (英語) ペーパーバック – 1972/6/1
What is the difference between art anatomy and Bridgman's concept of the human machine? The human machine is the body as not only a fixed framework but also as a complex work of art which moves and was designed to move.
In over 400 drawings, George B. Bridgman demonstrates the machine through the presentations which made him a gifted lecturer and teacher in his nearly fifty years at the Art Students League in New York and which gave life to drawings by his many students during those years. All skeletal and muscular systems are fully identified, and all are shown in front, back, and side views.
The Human Machine begins with the framework of bones. In each section (head, neck, hand, arm, forearm, elbow, trunk, shoulder, back, scapular region, pelvis, hip, thigh, leg, knee, foot, and toe as well as the combinations of the major sections working together), George Bridgman starts with the skeletal components of the system; then he adds the muscles, shows the changes in the muscles as the body moves and, finally, shows the appearance of the bodily section in action. At the title implies, Bridgman, throughout, supplements his anatomical work with comparative drawings of simple machines. The anatomical approach to figure drawing is the foundation for the study of human form, and as in his other books on figure drawing, Bridgman's Life Drawing and The Book of a Hundred Hands, Bridgman's approach to the subject is important and unique. The Human Machine will give students and serious artists the conception of the human structure as the complex of beautiful machines it is, and will show how bone and muscle structures are solely responsible for our movements and for the shapes which we, at various times, display.
1972年にDover社から茶色い表紙のペーパーバックの「The Human Machine」が出ました。
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I also recommend "The Human Figure: An Anatomy for Artists" by David K. Rubins.
The illustrations are somewhat badly printed and hard to make out at times but it's still very helpful especially for the price of these books.
Four stars because of poor print quality.
Bridgman's The Human Machine is *exceedingly* ambitious in its scope, and could have been exceedingly successful to match, were it not for its *one* pretty obviously glaring problem: these drawings are exceedingly sketchy!
Originally published in 1939, Bridgman passed away in 1943. He was approximately 75 when he made this- possibly a factor in the lack of clarity throughout. If only he had made this at the height of his career(!)- This book is a perfect example of 'what could have been'.
Many people revere this work in spite of all this. It may not compare at 1st glance with the slick, computer-aided & enhanced books of today, but if you're willing to get past the obvious sketchiness here you'll find a veritable gold mine of visual information. Take the overall layout & structure for example. In my opinion, this book's presentation easily rivals that of his more polished & refined work- Constructive Anatomy, which has a more awkward interplay between its words & pictures. The Human Machine moves rapidly & logically, building the figure with simple lines first, then showing how bones & muscles interact with each other & with the figure's simplified outline, to give an impression of the whole figure & its parts, all at once in a few detailed pages. It's this *overall* conception of the human figure that appeals to the many who give this work a chance. Bridgman applies all this to the figure's actions & mechanisms as well- it's not just about bones & muscles here, like so many anatomy books tend to be. And Bridgman's lines, though sketchy here, still tend to be an accurate record of the figure, worthy of study. He *usually* chooses his lines with the precision & beauty we've come to expect. But the overall lack of visual clarity here hurts; leaving this genius idea still somewhat unrealized.
Overall: The basic *point* of Bridgman's Human Machine is to help people to draw figures more convincingly, and even from memory. To a great degree, at least in my opinion, this book still succeeds in a very effective way...
P.S. This book is definitely *not* for beginners! Only *intermediate-level* artists need apply.