"Greening Brazil" challenges the claim that environmentalism came to Brazil from abroad. Political scientists Kathryn Hochstetler and Margaret E. Keck retell the story of environmentalism in Brazil from the inside out, analyzing the extensive efforts within the country to save its natural environment and the interplay of those efforts with transnational environmentalism. They trace Brazil's complex environmental politics as they have unfolded over time, from their mid-twentieth-century conservationist beginnings to the contemporary development of a distinctive 'socio-environmentalism' which seeks to address ecological destruction and social injustice simultaneously. Hochstetler and Keck argue that explanations of Brazilian environmentalism - and environmentalism in the global South generally - must take into account the way that domestic political processes shape environmental reform efforts. The authors present a multilevel analysis encompassing institutions and individuals within the government - at national, state, and local levels - as well as the activists, special interest groups, and nongovernmental organizations that operate outside formal political processes. They emphasize the importance of networks linking committed actors within the government bureaucracy with activists in civil society. Portraying a gradual process punctuated by periods of rapid advance, the authors show how political opportunities have arisen from major political transformations, such as the transition to democracy, and from critical events, including the well-publicized murders of environmental activists in 1988 and 2004. Hochstetler and Keck contend that rather than instigating environmental policy changes within Brazil, foreign governments and organizations provide much needed leverage and support to domestic actors at key moments.
"Greening Brazil is an extremely interesting, insightful, and important book. It is important precisely because it fills a huge gap in outsiders' understanding of Brazil's internal politics on environmental issues, providing insights into an often misunderstood country whose environmental performance has truly global implications."--J. Timmons Roberts, coauthor of Trouble in Paradise: Globalization and Environmental Crises in Latin America "Kathryn Hochstetler and Margaret E. Keck have vast and complementary direct experiences with environmental reform in Brazil, and their long-term commitment to following these issues has clearly paid off in their analysis of the country's long, rich, and distinctive reform history."--Jonathan Fox, University of California, Santa Cruz "Greening Brazil is an important contribution to Brazilian studies and Latin American environmental issues. The book showcases Hochstetler and Keck's hard-won empirical data...the writing is excellent, the story is compelling, and the argument is clear: that Brazilian environmental politics have deep domestic roots...As scholars study environmentalism in its numerous forms and sectors, they will find Greening Brazil to be an essential and lucid guide."- Christian Brannstrom in Bulletin of Latin American Research, Vol. 28, No. 2, April 2009