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Becoming Shakespeare: How a Provincial Playwright Became the World's Foremost Literary Icon (英語) ハードカバー – 2007/6/12
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"Becoming Shakespeare" begins where most Shakespeare stories end, with his death in 1616. Jack Lynch has written the definitive biography of Shakespeare's afterlife: the fascinating tale of his unlikely transformation from provincial playwright to universal Bard. Unlike later literary giants, Shakespeare created no stir when he died. Within a few years he was nearly forgotten. And when London's theatres were shut down in 1642, he seemed destined for oblivion.With the Restoration in 1660, however, the theatres were open once again, and Shakespeare began his long ascent. No longer merely one playwright among many, he became the transcendent genius at the heart of English culture.Fifty years after the Restoration scholars began taking him seriously. Fifty years after that he was considered England's greatest genius. And by 1800 he was practically divine, what Jane Austen called 'part of an Englishman's constitution'.Jack Lynch brilliantly chronicles Shakespeare's afterlife - from the revival of his plays to the decades when his work was co-opted and 'improved' by politicians and other playwrights, and culminating with the 'Bardolatry' of the Stratford celebration of Shakespeare's three-hundredth birthday in 1864. "Becoming Shakespeare" is not only essential reading for anyone intrigued by the myth of Shakespeare, but it also offers a consideration of the vagaries of fame. --このテキストは、ハードカバー版に関連付けられています。
"* "The best thing about Jack Lynch's fascinating book is that it helps us to understand that process by which so many of us have come to share Johnson's opinion. That transformation was every bit as contingent and turbulent as one of William Shakespeare's great dramas." - Los Angeles Times Book Review * 'A witty and appealing story of how a superstar was born' - Kirkus Reviews * 'Highly readable... Mr Lynch's account of it is worthy of inclusion on anyone's reading list.' - Dallas Morning News * 'A book for Shakespeareans of all stripes to relish with gusto.' - Booklist" --このテキストは、ハードカバー版に関連付けられています。商品の説明をすべて表示する
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Professor Lynch reminds us that Shakespeare, though successful in his day, was not considered the greatest playwright of his day. Johnson and Marlowe were much better regarded in most circles. Shakespeare did not adhere to the classical structure of the dramatic form well enough and he often stooped to crude humor. With the closure of the theaters during the Protectorate, it seemed very likely that Shakespeare and his works would be lost to history. Fortunately for us, the Restoration saw the rise of some of the great Shakespearean actors--Garrick, Cibber, Siddons, Kemble, etc.--who really began to move Shakespeare to the fore.
Professor Lynch also reminds us that, until the twentieth century, Shakespeare's text was not as sacrosanct as it is now. He discusses the fact that the most popular forms of Shakespeare until very recently were adaptations and bowdlerizations. (In fact, the word "bowdlerization" comes from Henrietta and Thomas Bowlder, who made a career out of deleting the "naughty bits" from Shakespeare.) Additionally, there were many attempts to forge and otherwise pass off plays as written by Shakespeare. So much so that it is difficult, even to this day, to ferret out some truths.
It may be hard for some to accept in a culture where Shakespeare is so revered, but it did not have to be so. Professor Lynch does a fine job of showing this transition from successful playwright to demigod. There may be some who feel Lynch is merely trying to bring Shakespeare down a peg but I don't see that at all. He is looking for an honest assessment and he tries to give us one. He illustrates his point well in the closing paragraphs of the book: "Shakespeare was unappreciated not because the world was stupid, unable to understand his true greatness until centuries passed. By the standard of 1650, Shakespeare really did deserve his B-plus, and not much more...the biggest testimony to Shakespeare's greatness may be that he changed what it means to be great." It shows respect to his greatness that we try to understand what really happened. This book is definitely worth reading.
Lynch focuses on stories about the plays and their production, appreciation, and alteration over the centuries. It starts with Shakespeare's death in 1616 which got no public attention. Shakespeare's reputation got its initial restoration by a quirk of history. The newly instituted theatrical companies, after theaters were closed down by the Puritans, needed plays to perform but nothing had been written for the stage in decades. Shakespeare's languishing works were still available, and approvable by the Lord Chamberlain, and he came into fashion again. The plays were not good enough for all the uses to which people wanted to apply them. Some felt Shakespeare's plays needed improvement in various ways. "For much of the last four hundred years," says Lynch, "they were rarely presented as he wrote them." As early as 1662, people started blending and changing the texts. Some of the changes were minor and could be charitably viewed as "a helpful tidying-up" to keep the ancient words from being a puzzle to modern ears. There were, however, more radical changes like a _King Lear_ with a happy ending, brought out in 1681 and still performed into the nineteenth century. The funniest chapter here is "Domesticating Shakespeare", making him fit to be presented to children; the the brother-and-sister team of Thomas and Henrietta Bowdler in the early nineteenth century brought out _The Family Shakespeare_, and bowdlerized versions of the play are still the ones found in some school editions.
After a chapter devoted to forgeries of Shakespeare, Lynch winds up with "Worshipping Shakespeare", concentrating on the literary pilgrimage to Stratford-on-Avon. Stratford was just an English town, and it was not until well after its most famous citizen had died that people came to see William Shakespeare's home. So many came to see it that they annoyed the owner of the property, the Reverend Francis Gastrell. First in 1756, he cut down the mulberry tree that Shakespeare planted in the garden (and Shakespeare may actually have done so) because so many tourists visited and wanted cuttings. (Wood from the tree, or supposed to be from the tree, became carved into trinkets that were hugely valued as icons.) Then, because he didn't want to pay taxes on Shakespeare's house (and because of continued enragements toward tourists) he pulled the house down in 1759. The home is gone, but tourists can come and see Shakespeare's burial place, and birth place, and his wife's cottage, just as did such fans as John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Washington Irving. The latter enjoyed being a tourist so much that he did not mind being shown relics of dubious authenticity: "I am always of easy faith in such matters, and am ever willing to be deceived where the deceit is pleasant and costs nothing." Relics and pilgrimages are tributes to religious figures, and at the end of his book, Lynch writes, "Our story is about the long process that turned a very competent playwright into a demigod who transcended the human condition." His book is an insightful examination of a peculiar history. Lynch shows we have always changed Shakespearean texts for different reasons, some of them laudable; that people through the centuries have seen fit to make even silly or inappropriate changes to these ancient works is perhaps one of the greatest of tributes the Bard has earned.
What is there consists of a superficial recitation of well-known anecdotes from theater history, much of it seemingly cribbed from sources like Oscar Brockett, and some of it not very accurately or critically. To that, he adds a small body of Shakespeariana trivia, such as analysis of two figures known for Shakespearian forgery and fraud.
There's a lot of sloppy thinking. Right from the top, how are we to understand Shakespeare as a "provincial" playwright when he spent his entire working life in the only great metropolis of his nation?
Searching for the cultural processes that transformed Shakespeare, the popular playwright of his day, into Shakespeare, a poetic master known and valued all over the world, is a very worthwhile project. I do hope somebody carries it out some day. It most certainly has not been carried out here. One finishes this book as ignorant of the nature of that process as one is at the beginning of the book. The one substantial suggestion, badly framed as the idea that "he changed what it meant to be great" might bear fruit if someone were to take it seriously and examine exactly how reception and response to the work of Shakespeare led to broadly shared changes in the conception of quality in literature. Again, I hope someone does that someday, for it has not been done here.
All in all, I see no reason to buy this book. It does not deliver on its basic promise, and it has little else to recommend it.
The section at the end of this book, which the author's provides on further reading, will be quite helpful for those seeking informed guidance through the thicket of books ever available on the great Englishman.
The author, Jack Lynch, writes in a colloquial style aimed at connecting with the general reader and I appreciated that approach. He also does not arrange the book chronologically (examining how Shakespeare’s reputation grew over the last four centuries) but rather he examines the phenomenon of Shakespeare’s extraordinary ascent through topic. The text looks at how Shakespeare became the entity he is today by exploring these eight areas: reviving, performing, studying, improving, co-opting, domesticating, forging, and worshipping. Although some of these chapters are more valuable to proving Lynch’s thesis then others, none of them seem out of place in this book. Especially engaging is the chapter titled “Forging Shakespeare”.
Another strength of this book is how Mr. Lynch keeps reminding his reader that Shakespeare was not one of us. He was a product of his time, and would not recognize our world. His determination to keep Shakespeare in his own time, and not co-opt him for a modern agenda is something many writers do not do.
The Epilogue of “Becoming Shakespeare” (pages 273-280) is an interesting animal. The first 4.5 pages are just awful. They include a list of languages Shakespeare has been translated into. Seriously? However, the last 3 pages contain some of the best writing in the text, and puts succinctly into words how Shakespeare changed the standards by which we judge greatness. It is a thrilling conclusion.